Batching and Mixing of Mortar And Concrete Ingredients

Shubham Sunil Malu

A concrete plant, also known as batch plant is device that combines various ingredients to form concrete. In general, it is a process of combining all ingredients of concrete as per the mix design. Batching and mixing are extremely important parts of mortar and concrete manufactures they influence properties of concrete both in plastic as well as in hardened stages. Also, it is one of the important processes, which is to be done to obtain a quality concrete. Many processes are carried out in various parts of the world with many changes and different equipment. There are various types of batching and mixing equipment and methods that is to say from manual to most sophisticated computerized batching and mixing. Mechanization improves quality of batching and mixing, its speed and thereby can most often result in economy.There are number of factors which are to be considered while doing the process which are discussed in this paper. Moreover, the machinery, which is to be required while making concrete or for batching process and discharging and unloading of the mixture, are also discussed in brief.

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High Quality Cement and its Usage

Shubham Sunil Malu

Concrete is a basic building material that will continue to be in demand far into the future. A world without concrete, and its dominant precursor, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), is hard to imagine. Although there are different types of concrete that have been developed for use in different applications, their common virtues are familiarity, versatility, strength, durability, wide availability, fire resistance, resistance to the elements and comparatively low cost.Cement industry is growing at a rapid pace in India and over the globe. Many new brands are available in the market but selection of good cement is very important for an engineer. Many a time construction project fails due to poor quality of cement.

This paper will show you what are the factors affecting the selection of cement and cement strength classification. Also, the quality control of cement and need of consistency of quality in cement. Thus the project, can be secured to extent with the selection of proper quality of cement.

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Compression test on concrete

Shubham Sunil Malu.

With the growth of construction industry there is need to give quality in it. Many of the projects fail in construction field because of improper results and improper testing on site. One of the basic and important test is compressive test which should be done carefully since it is taken as the backbone of all tests of civil engineering related to concrete. Compression test is required almost in every project since it gives us a brief idea of the grade and type of concrete. Many of them do small mistakes in these which includes the different exclusion of different parameters of concrete, improper procedure for filling and compacting concrete, wrong methods of testing of concrete and many more. This paper contains all the necessary parameters, equipment and the acceptance criteria of the test. It also includes procedure for filling and compacting concrete as well as methods of testing of concrete.

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Analysis and Design of Flyover

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Our project deals with the Design of Fly over . The location is at five roads junction at SALEM . which is facing major traffic problems due to the construction. We have done a traffic survey and designed all the structural parts for this Fly over .

The Fly over is of 320 m length with 32 spans, 10 m per span. It consists of a deck slab, longitudinal girders, cross girders, deck beam, pier and foundation. Structural design of one span was made for all the above components. Slab is designed by Working stress method as per the recommendation of IRC: 21-2000, Clause 304.2.1.

Deck slab is designed for maximum moment due to deck action. the T beam designed as the IRC :21-2000. The deck beam is designed as a cantilever on a pier.

The Pier is designed for the axial dead load and live load from the slab, girders, deck beam.Foundation designed as footing for the safe load bearing in the soil. All the elements are designed by using M15 grade concrete and Fe415grade steel. Designs are based on Working stress and Limit state method as per IRC: 21-2000 and IS: 456-2000.

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Design Aspects For Terrorist Resistant Buildings


All western democracies are now acutely aware of the apocalyptic consequences of a well-orchestrated attack on high-profile government facilities and other related targets. Many of these buildings are historical, ornate, listed and constructed using traditional techniques. Many of the modern retrofitted reinforcement techniques used to protect these structures against terrorist attacks are unsightly, intrusive or inappropriate. However, security specialists are well aware that while there might be little that can be done to defend a building against an aircraft attack, much can be done to defeat the more traditional car bomb and bullet. The methods available to the structural engineer to strengthen existing structures and provide resistance to the effects of a blast attacks are discussed in this paper.


The design of civilian or commercial buildings to withstand the effects of a terrorist blast is unlike the design of military installations or the design of embassy buildings. The objectives of the “Structural Engineering Guidelines” for the Design of New Embassy Buildings are to prevent heavy damage to components and structural collapse. Adherence to the provisions of the guidelines will minimize injuries and loss of life and facilitate the evacuation and rescue of survivors. The blast-protection objective of any commercial or public building must be similar to those of embassy structures, that is, to prevent structural collapse, to save lives, and to evacuate victims.

Architectural and structural features play a significant role in determining how the building will respond to the blast loading. These features can include adjacent or underground parking, atriums, transfer girders, slab configurations, and structural-frame systems. The keep-out distance is vital in the design of blast resistant structures since it is the key parameter that determines the blast overpressures that load the building and its structural elements. The degree of fenestration is another key parameter as it determines the pressures that enter the structure. The smaller the door and window openings the Embassies and military structures occupy secure sites with substantial keep-out distances better protected the occupants are within the structure. Following these key parameters,

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