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Construction & Management of Underground Structure with Scheduling & Estimation

Mr. S.L. Ghorpade
Under the guidance of Prof. A.B. Shendge
Dattakala Group of Institutions Faculty of Engineering, Swami – Chincholi (Bhigwan).

Abstract- The construction of tunnel is important for different purposes. They can be constructed for railways, roadways, pedestrian footways and can be built in hard rock, soft ground, river bed and are also used to convey Hydroelectric power, water stream, or as a sewer. The construction of Diversion Tunnel, Pressure Shaft, and Tailrace Tunnel to convey water is considered in this project. To identify Scheduling of different activities by various methods Network Diagram, C.P.M., P.E.R.T. and their cycle time is calculated. Scheduling for different activity is carried out with the help of Network Diagram & Primavera Software will be carried out in a project stage II. Study of Estimation for a Diversion Tunnel, Pressure Shaft, and Tailrace Tunnel by both methods. Excavation in heading and benching, Rock bolt support work, lining work is considered for cycle time and cost estimation calculation in Diversion Tunnel, Pressure Shaft, and Tailrace Tunnel. Estimation is also carried out by two methods. The comparison of two methods adopted for excavation work and estimation will be carried out in a project stage II.

Keywords- Scheduling, C.P.M., P.E.R.T., Gantt chart, Network Diagram, Estimation, Heading, Benching, Cycle time, Lining, Rock Bolts, Diversion Tunnel, Pressure Shaft, Tailrace Tunnel.

1. Introduction

The main interpretation that usually follows the term feasibility is one of the following: The case in which an alternative option, a strategy plan, a design or a different location is proved economically preferable; the case in which an alternative option is deemed appropriate in social Or environmental terms and the case in which probable construction and operation of a project Can be financially viable as well as manageable. A feasibility study is a multidimensional set of actions which aims to analysis and evaluate a project in order to determine if its construction is feasible. Such a study refers to the assessment of results which concern the economic forecast in relation to other important factors, such as socioeconomic efficiency and environmental impact. The defining point of a feasibility study is the necessary information that leads decision-makers to decide if the proposed option or project should be implemented. Its necessity in project development is considered significant, as the identification of errors in this stage contributes to better performance of the project. Thus, the success of a project is determined by the assumptions that are set during the feasibility study process. In some cases, a project is not profitable in economic terms; however, its feasibility is attributed to serve another purpose. Underground construction projects, particularly those in urban areas, ostensibly experience more significant problems than other infrastructure engineering projects. In many underground projects, technology is more challenging than in other infrastructure projects, increasing the chance of failure.

Primavera is used for scheduling of the project:

These are the some of the key benefits of the primavera. With the help of the primavera we can rescheduled the activities that are delayed and reduce the delay and made a comparison between the delayed activities and reschedule activities. Construction delays area unit widespread in most comes round the world. Some delays may happen in the preconstruction phase which is defined as the period beginning from the initial conception of the project to the signing of the contract between the owner and also the contractor; but a number of them might happen within the construction section that’s the amount once actual construction is beneath method. Project schedules are consistently dynamic and uncertain. Several governable and uncontrollable factors will adversely have an effect on the project schedule and cause delays. These delays positively produce negative impacts on project performance. Schedule delay within the completion of a construction project is also a serious issue for contractors resulting in pricey disputes and adverse relationships between project participants. The challenge is to live World Wide Web impact of construction delays accurately. Otherwise, there could seem delay claims between all parties concerned within the construction method. The method of schedule delay analysis technique ought to be acceptable to all or any participants through the project. Moreover, in underground projects the consequence of eventual failure is often more profound than in other projects, increasing the overall consequences of failure. As a result, underground projects have a reputation for being risky because they are susceptible to implementation problems. Society growing demand for space, however, makes us heavily dependent on underground space to satisfy contemporary spatial claims. This should provide ideas about how to set up a project organization to best handle the efforts this requires. To do so, the complexity of underground projects will first be analysis. The main manageability problem of organizations dealing with this complexity is identified. Subsequently, details from some real projects will show the virtues and drawbacks of some types of project organizations in the face of complexity, particularly in terms of their ability to handle manageability problems.

Underground construction is in a great demand in many civil and infrastructure projects all over the world, such as metro and hydropower projects. In construction has presented a powerful momentum for rapid economic development. However, owing to various risk factors associated with complex project environments, violations of safety rule occur frequently in tunnel construction, resulting in serious problems in the related project operation To study economic feasibility for railway tunnel; the study addresses the factors that determine location, the attributes that enhance rail use through passenger satisfaction and financial analysis, presents the social impacts and their requirements for the achievement of the social objectives and discusses the benefits social, economic, environmental that are accrued from the existence of railway tunnel. The proposed Project, in Vasai-Virar tehsil of Palghar District of Maharashtra state, is located downstream of the Ulhas river power house which is in advance stage of construction on Ulhas river as identified by Central Electricity Authority in their ranking studies. The Ulhas River originates at Rajmachi village,Lonavala Dist Pune till it meets Vasai Creek,Arabian Sea. A dam is proposed across the river just downstream of the Pelhar,Vasai-Virar village (Latitude 19°26’39″N,Longitude 72°53’57″E) and an underground power house with an installed capacity of 72 MW is proposed near Bhivpuri village in Palghar District. Two nos. of Diversion Tunnel has to be constructed in order to divert the Ulhas river water flow during Dam construction. Diversion Tunnels are having circular shape. Construction work for Diversion tunnels has to be carried out from Inlet and Outlet ends. Diversion Tunnel works includes excavation by conventional method like drilling and blasting or by Road header or as directed by Engineer In-charge. Diversion tunnels are common in the construction of dams. When a dam is built, a tunnel is bored in order to divert water away from the dam construction site so that it essentially bypasses it, hence the term diversion tunnel.

1.2 Need of the study of project

1.3 Aim

1.4 Objectives

2. Literature Review

2.1 Mr. I. Michael Raj1, Ms. M. Panimalar
Schedule Delay Analysis in Construction Management using Primavera. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) Construction schedule delays in a project can cause major problems for contractors and owners, resulting in costly disputes, controversial issues and adverse relationships between all the project participants. As Arditi et al. (1985) point out, the most important causes of delays in public projects of Turkey are shortage of resources, financial difficulties and organizational deficiencies of public agencies and contracting companies, delays in design work, large quantities of extra work and frequent change orders. In this multi-specialty project work the delay has been rectified in basement 2 and the project has been goes on and it has been finished with schedule delay analysis.

2.2 Qihu Qian a, Peng Lin
Safety risk management of underground engineering in China: Progress, challenges and strategies Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, 2016 The laws and regulations of underground engineering should be improved. The safety risk management plans should be implemented in construction management of underground projects. Information technology should be employed to implement early-warning and decision-making support functions for safety risk management. More resources should be invested into researches on safety risk management, prediction and prevention of major accidents.

2.3 G.Poovizhi S.Manoj, D.Ambika , V.Santha Rubini, V.Nandhini, S.Dhinu Priya
Risk Safety Management in Construction of Metro Rail Projects International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 2020 The aim is to construct a new type of model for risk safety management in metro rail projects, to study the existing risk safety management system and to identify the risks that occur during construction and to create, implement, and determine the efficiency of the model for safety in the construction of metro rail projects.

2.4 Rajwardhan Kale, Kartik Kharde, Mohanish Vengurlekar, Shantini Bokil
Collation between Underground and Elevated System International Journal of Engineering Research in Mechanical and Civil Engineering, 2017 An underground connectivity will be more beneficial rather than an elevated as in Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore and highlights various parameters of its onsite implementation.

2.5 Qian Zhang, Jing Wang, Wenyu Wang, Songsong Bai & Peng Lin (2019)
Study on slope stability due to the influence of excavation of the highspeed rail tunnel IJRET, 2018
In this study, based on a high-speed railway tunnel project undercrossing slope, model tests and numerical simulation methods were carried out to study the interaction law of tunnel excavation and slope stability. Firstly, the numerical model of finite element analysis and the numerical model of excavation tunnel under the slope were established. The influence mechanism of tunnel excavation on the stability of the slope was studied.

2.6 G Zhang et al 2020
Effect of Construction Ventilation Scheme on Pollutant Transport in a High-Speed Railway Tunnel International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 2014 To find out the distribution of dust and harmful gases and check the effect of ventilation and dust prevention after blasting in tunnel construction with the drilling and blasting method, the wind velocity, dust concentration and the concentration of harmful gas in You-zhu-shan tunnel of GuiGuang high-speed railway were studied by CFD simulation and field test.

2.7 Anwar 2014
A new megaproject model and a new funding model. International journal of research 2019 Deals with the governance patterns at different scales through Delhi Metro Megaproject and its financing mechanism through Land value capture.

2.8 W. P Chakrun 2012
Land value capture finance for transport accessibility: a review. Research Gate Deals with the main land value capture finance (LVC) mechanisms (betterment tax, accessibility increment contribution, and joint development) in relation to increased transport accessibility.

2.9 N. Sheelan, 2014
Self-financing land and urban development via land readjustment and value capture, IEEE .
Showcases how a regional level infrastructure asset can be created using the LR technique, and how rapidly growing fringe area can benefit using the LR technique.

2.10 Mahdi Khosravi and Kalle
Issues in financing urban rail transit projects and value captures, IEEE.
This paper re-examines the financing system and analyses the possible menus for fund-raising from the viewpoint of imbalance between benefit receivers and cost burdens on the basis of benefit principle.

2.11 Martijn Leijten
Management of complex underground construction projects Research Gate, August 2018
Decision makers are usually not the actors with the most extensive information resources and the principal owners of these resources are often not the ones who make decisions. This all keeps uncertainty intact. Rather than attempting to increase information to reduce uncertainty in traditional project manager-functional manager relationships, avoidance of the principal-agent problem between those two types of managers may provide more support.

2.12 Lisa Avestedt
Comparison of Risk Assessments for Underground Construction Projects June 2012
Identify a theoretical general approach to risk management and specifically risk assessments based on a literature study. Identify similarities between risk management practices in the two countries. Identify differences between risk management practices in the two countries. Identify how risk management practices differ in the two countries from the theoretical approach established from the literature study.

3. Methodology

The first step of the research consists of gathering information about activities and resources used in tunneling construction. This is mainly done by means of a literature study. In order to identify the main variables of tunneling construction a deterministic model is constructed. The deterministic model is used to help to understand the processes involved in tunneling construction and identify the model variables for which information needs to be collected data about model parameters, probability distributions of time durations of activities, resources and the relationships between models parameters are examined. A sensitivity analysis is carried out on real tunneling case studies, to identify and analysis the most critical tunneling variables affecting productivity of tunneling construction processes. Critical variables are the variables that have major impact on productivity and cost of tunneling construction. On the basis of the results produced, the best excavation method regarding a real tunneling project is determined also, a comparison will be made between the road header and drill and blast excavation methods. These analyses are done based on productivity (in terms of tunnel advance rate) and cost.

Project methodology described can be graphically represented as shown :

3.1 Challenges that Sustainable Buildings Face in India
1. Scope of study

2. Advantages of underground Construction

3. Limitations

4. Method statement

Two boom drill jumbo, Dumpers, Excavators, Loaders, Shotcrete machine, Concrete pump, Gantry with shutter Hydra crane, Batching plant, Scissor Lift etc.

Open excavation: This work shall consist of excavation by mechanical means in all types of strata, in rock by blasting or line drilling using pneumatic equipment and expanding agents, chiseling including dressing to final line, level, grades including hauling of excavated materials to site, also disposal of unsuitable cut materials in specified manner.

Rock excavation by blasting includes all solid rock in place which cannot be removed until loosened by blasting, barring or wedging, removal of all boulders or detached pieces of solid rock larger than 1 cum in volume, as well as any existing structural foundation made of concrete or masonry placed in mortar which cannot be removed during common excavation or by ripping. The blasting operations shall be prepared or made by the competent and experienced personnel and workmen who are thoroughly acquainted with details of handling explosives and blasting operations. Diameter and spacing of blast holes shall be constantly adapted to the actual site conditions. The charge holes shall be drilled by using jack hammer drill. All the excavated rock shall be removed from the bench toe before the next shot. If a misfire is due to a defective detonator or dynamite the whole quantity or box from the defective article was taken must be thoroughly inspected.

    1. The underground excavation of Diversion Tunnel will be carried out in 2 stages:

Heading: Excavation of top arch shaped area of Diversion Tunnel and providing required support systems.

Benching: Excavation of bottom area of Diversion Tunnel.

  1. Drill holes shall be cleaned for dust & rock cutting by air flushing before charging.
  2. After charging operation, Mining Engineer/ Shift In-charge along with Engineer In- charge shall note down charge concentration per hole, positioning of delay detonators, and capacity of blasting device in prescribed format.
  3. Dewatering of seepage water shall be removed to avoid water logging in the tunnel.

Drilling and blasting pattern i.e. the number of holes; depth of holes, quantity, quality and distribution of explosives shall be decided as to suit the rock conditions encountered. Drilling and Blasting shall be carried out as per the pattern proposed and approved by Engineer In-charge and shall be changed or modified as per the rock conditions encountered.

Heading excavation will be carried out by Drilling & Blasting methodology. Heading work will be carried out continuously in a cyclic process along with the supporting work. Types of supporting work will depend on the rock classes encountered.

1. Profile marking by surveyor
2. Drilling by Two boom drill jumbo
3. Charging & blasting by professional blaster
4. Mucking by wheel loader and dumpers
5. Scaling/Trimming to the required excavation line
6. Supporting by Steel Fiber Reinforced Shotcrete
7. Fixing of Rock Bolts & Extension of ventilation duct.

1. Profile marking by surveyor
2. Drilling by Two boom drill jumbo
3. Charging & blasting by professional blaster
4. Mucking by wheel loader and dumpers
5. Scaling/Trimming to the required excavation line
6. Supporting by Steel Fiber Reinforced Shotcrete
7. Fixing of Rock Bolts
8. Supporting by steel Ribs
9. Precast RCC lagging fixing
10. Back fill concreting
11. Extension ventilation duct

Benching work will be started on completion of heading work. It will be carried out continuously in a cyclic process using Drilling & Blasting method. Sequences of works are same as mentioned in “Heading” except that no Rock Bolt support is required in Benching work and supporting works are required in both side faces.

Rock support works in the tunnel shall be provided as given in the construction drawings in accordance to the rock classification given by the geologists and as per the directions of Engineer in Charge. The Rock Supports are classified depending upon the amount of hindrance it poses for the advancement of excavation work. The details of support system for each class of excavation are given below.

Concrete lining of tunnel will be taken up when the Heading and Benching excavation of the Diversion tunnel will be completed. Concrete lining for overt will be carried out using 15 m gantry equipped with 2 shutters and 1 traveller. The concrete lining of Diversion tunnel will commence from Inlet end.

1. Kerb Lining
2. Invert Lining
3. Overt Linin

1. Surface cleaning should be done before Kerb concreting.
2. Kerb concreting will commence parallel to benching excavation.
3. Kerb shutters with requisite anchoring in the rock will be used for kerb concreting.

1. Invert lining will be done using the invert template.

1. Every Personnel working inside the tunnel shall wear personal protective equipment such as helmets, shoes, gloves and reflective bands etc.
2. In the location of drilling where personnel are employed to higher noise level, noise protection shall be provided.
3. Employees, working in places having an inherent danger of eye or face injury, shall be provided with protection glass, goggles or masks.
4. Stretchers, appliances for artificial breathing, oxygen flask, gas masks etc. shall be available in the front.
5. Fire extinguishers shall be provided at suitable locations in the tunnels where construction activity is carried out.
6. The electrical cables used shall be of waterproof and earthed.
7. Suitable communication system working in underground areas shall be provided for better communication during works.
8. An effective safety program should follow as

4. Conclusion

Scheduling of different activities of the project by use of Network diagrams & Primavera Software. We can carry out activities as mentioned above.

1. For Drill and Blast method
2. For Mechanical method

Estimation of tunneling of hydropower project for following methods of excavations.

1. By Drill and Blast method
2. By Mechanical method

Comparisons in the Schedule & Cost/Estimation can be done in all methods of excavation of Tunnel will be workout in Project Stage II. So we can find which method is best suitable and economical.

Delays in the construction timeline can lead to significant issues for both owners and contractors. Resulting in expensive disagreements, contentious matters, and strained relationships between all project stakeholders.

Study & identify the different Risk factors and analysis process for the underground construction.

Construction and operation of long tunnels for hydropower plants & railways by examining others that are already finished and that can be organized and carried out in a way such that the experiences and bottlenecks found in previous completed construction projects can be eliminated.

5. References

1. Gerhard Girmscheid and Cliff Schexnayder, F.ASCE (2002), “Drill and Blast Tunneling Practices,” Practice periodical on structural design and construction, 125-133.

2. Roshni Bhoi, Dr. S.M. Ali, (2014), “Potential of Hydro Power Plant in India and its Impact on Environment,” International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), Volume-10, Number-3.

3. Sumit Bhardwaj, Manit Sharma, Sahil Deep Singh Bhau, (2015), “A Review on Baglihar Hydroelectric Project,” SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering (SSRG-IJCE) volume -2, Issue -3.

4. M.S.Rahu (2014), “Case Study on Design and Construction of Tunnel,” International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), Volume-13.

5. Harmelink D.J, and Rowings J.E. (1998), “Linear Scheduling Model: Development ofControlling Activity Path,” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 263- 268.

6. Obedait, H. Al-Barqawi, T. Zayed, M. Amer (2006), “Productivity of Tunnel construction Using Road-header,” 1st International Construction Specialty Conference.

7. Lei Bei, Bingyu Ren, Denghua Zhong, Lianxing Hu. (2015), “Real-Time Construction Schedule Analysis of Long-Distance Diversion Tunnels Based on Lithological Predictions Using a Markov Process,” Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 141-144.

8. Erion Periku, Algest Aha (2015), “Construction Time Analysis For Different Steps In DrillAnd-Blast Method Of Hydro Power Tunnel Excavatio,” Erion Periku Internaional Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 95-101.

9. Study of 850MW Ratle hydro electric project.

10. Project Quality Plan, Issue No 01, HCIIC/PQP/WP11.

11. L&T DRG No. 01202-BE-DIV-EXC-3003 to 3031.

12. Schedule of Rates: Tunnel and allied works: for the year: 2014-15.

13. ITA Working Group Number 13. Underground or aboveground? Making the choice for urban mass transit systems. A report by the International Tunnelling Association (ITA). Prepared by Working Group Number 13 (WG13). Direct and indirect advantages of underground structures. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology.

14. Kim G., Kim K., Lee D., Han, C., Kim, H. and Jun, J.T., Development of a life cycle cost estimate system for structures of light rail transit infrastructure. Automation in Construction, 19, 308-325(2010).

15. Van Loon, R., Rietveld, P. and Martijn Brons, M., Travel-time reliability impacts on railway passenger demand: a revealed preference analysis. J. of Transport Geography (2011).

16. Shen, L., Tam, V., Tam, L. and Ji, Y., Project feasibility study: the key to successful implementation of sustainable and socially responsible construction management practice. J. of Cleaner Production, 18, 254–259 (2009).

17. Shahin HM, Nakai T, Kikumoto M, Uetani Y and Zhang F, “Interaction of Retaining Wall and Existing Structures in Braced Excavation”, Geotechnical Special Publication of American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) on Deep and Underground Excavation, Vol. 206, 2010, pp. 92-99.

18. Victoria Transport Policy. Guidelines for Cost Benefit Analysis (2010).

19. D.A. Patel and K.N. Jha, “An Estimate of Fatal Accidents in Indian Construction”, In Proceedings of the 32nd Annual ARCOM Conference, (2016) September, pp. 5-7.

20. India today, “Forty-seven Deaths, 35 Injuries in 65 Accidents during Construction of Four Metro Project”, retrieved from, (2016).

21. Eskesen, S D et al. (2016) Guidelines for tunnelling risk management, ITA Working Group 2, Research, ITA-AITES, c/o EPFL, Bat GC, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.

22. Moergeli, A et al. (2014) Risk Management in Tunnelling – Occupational Safety & health Plans for Drill & Blast and tunnel boring machines.

23.Execution of Metro Rail Projects – A Case Study of Nagpur Metro Rail? published by IJSTE – International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering | Volume 4 | Issue 3 | September 2017 ISSN (online): 2349-784X [Type text] Imperial College of Engineering and Research, Wagholi, Pune-412 207

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