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Design Calculation for Slab

INTRODUCTION
A slab is a structural element that is used to support ceilings and floors. It is made of concrete and reinforcements are provided to support it. It is several inches thick and it rests on beams and columns. It is estimated that a concrete slab lasts for about 30 to 100 years if it is built with good grade of concrete and steel. Usually for residential purpose M20 is used.

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Design Calculation of an Isolated Footing

INTRODUCTION
Footings are the bases laid on the soil on top of which a structure is erected. Thus, it is the foundation on which a building or any such structure stands upon. They are made of concrete having reinforcements inside them and are poured into an excavated ditch or conduit. Before the foundation is built, a test is done to assess the strength ofthe soil bearing capacity to ascertain the type of foundation to be built.

Given below are the types of footing and the situation under which they are applied is defined for better understanding-
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What are various types of Admixtures?

INTRODUCTION
Admixtures are added to the concrete mix to reduce water content, accelerate or decelerate the setting property, make concrete light and modify concrete properties. They are added immediately before or during the mixing of concrete. Excessive amount of water may lead to excessive bleeding and segregation that is why admixtures are added to control such constituents of concrete. This imbalance makes the concrete weak and the strength will also be affected. Many admixtures provide the combination of Superplasticizers, plasticizers or air entrainers. In laboratories, the admixtures are added during concrete preparation but in field not much time can be given on mixing and making concrete appropriate for using quickly. Hence, admixtures are added in cement clinkers formation and then transported to the site for ready to use.
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Types of Contracts in Construction Management

INTRODUCTION
Contracts provide a legal framework or a set of protocols to be carried out to establish a legal settlement between the two parties involved. It avoids any such unnecessary confusion that may arise leading to disputes. These are the keys to guide business relationships across all sectors. Not only that, these are helpful for contractors to better estimate the time and money to be used up in the project. Also, it helps the contractors to utilise their powers for gaining maximum profit out of it.

When contracts are not met as per the requirements, then action has to be taken at the initial stages, otherwise conflicts may arise leading to unprofessionalism and disputes. Contracts address labour requirements, incentives involved, money matters, time of delivery, economic construction, choice of equipment, and so on. Thus, it is essential if the construction works are to be carried out smoothly.
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Factors Affecting Strength And Workability Of Concrete

INTRODUCTION
Strength and workability are both dominating factors in the making of concrete. Strength can be increased by increasing cement content but this in fact reduces the workability. Moreover,the water content can be increased for better workability, but this affects the strength. Hence,a perfect balance is to be maintained for both strength and workability. Furthermore, besides cement and water content, some other factors contribute greatly, which will be discussed as follows.
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