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Explain briefly various types of Estimates

Before undertaking a construction project it is necessary to know the expected cost and it is worked out by estimation. It is a computation of the quantities required and expenditure likely to be in the construction of the work.

The following are the different types of estimates:

1. Preliminary or Approximate Estimate:
This estimate is prepared to decide the financial aspects,policy and to give the idea of the cost of the proposal to the competent sanctioning authority.The calculation for approximate estimate is done in many ways. There are three types of approximate estimate
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Design of a Lintel

INTRODUCTION
Before coming to the design part, it is important to know the importance of lintels in structure. A lintel is a horizontal structural member that is present on top of doors, windows, etc. to support the top load falling on these openings. These are used for load bearing purposes, to transfer its load to the side walls and sometimes for decorative purposes. These can be made of wood or concrete; however, concrete is widely used due to its strength and durability. These can also be prestressed for better load carrying capacity.
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Design Calculation for Slab

INTRODUCTION
A slab is a structural element that is used to support ceilings and floors. It is made of concrete and reinforcements are provided to support it. It is several inches thick and it rests on beams and columns. It is estimated that a concrete slab lasts for about 30 to 100 years if it is built with good grade of concrete and steel. Usually for residential purpose M20 is used.

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Design Calculation of an Isolated Footing

INTRODUCTION
Footings are the bases laid on the soil on top of which a structure is erected. Thus, it is the foundation on which a building or any such structure stands upon. They are made of concrete having reinforcements inside them and are poured into an excavated ditch or conduit. Before the foundation is built, a test is done to assess the strength ofthe soil bearing capacity to ascertain the type of foundation to be built.

Given below are the types of footing and the situation under which they are applied is defined for better understanding-
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What are various types of Admixtures?

INTRODUCTION
Admixtures are added to the concrete mix to reduce water content, accelerate or decelerate the setting property, make concrete light and modify concrete properties. They are added immediately before or during the mixing of concrete. Excessive amount of water may lead to excessive bleeding and segregation that is why admixtures are added to control such constituents of concrete. This imbalance makes the concrete weak and the strength will also be affected. Many admixtures provide the combination of Superplasticizers, plasticizers or air entrainers. In laboratories, the admixtures are added during concrete preparation but in field not much time can be given on mixing and making concrete appropriate for using quickly. Hence, admixtures are added in cement clinkers formation and then transported to the site for ready to use.
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