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Different Types of Lintels

What is Lintel?
Doors and windows are not only necessary parts of a building’s structure, but they also serve as vulnerable spots in the exterior shell. Creating an entrance in a building necessitates sound engineering since it is necessary to preserve structural and thermal stability—a lintel used in this situation.

A lintel is a beam that spans entrances in buildings such as doors, windows, and other openings to sustain the load from the structure above. The lintel beam’s width equals the wall’s width, and its end is built into the wall—lintels classified according to the material used in their construction.

Lintels are typically rectangular, support a wall over a door or window, and anchor the door and window frames wherever utilized. Lintels built of wood, stone, brick, reinforced brickwork, reinforced concrete, or rolling steel pieces embedded in cement concrete. Lintels are typically employed for load-bearing purposes, although they can also use as decorative elements.

The function of lintel:

  • The lintel is a beam put over openings like windows, doors, and other openings to sustain the load from the structure above the building.
  • The lintel is responsible for the structure’s stability. The lintel also serves another crucial purpose.
  • The lintel beam distributes the applied weight from the superstructure to the side walls.
  • A lintel’s function occasionally serves as a decorative element for the construction.
  • The lintel’s purpose is to protect the doors and windows from the elements.

Types of Lintel:

Lintels are classified into the following types based on the materials used in their construction:
1. Timber Lintels
2. Stone Lintels
3. Brick Lintels
4. Steel Lintels
5. Reinforced Concrete Lintels
6. Reinforced Brick Lintels

1. Timber Lintels:
Fig 1 Timber Lintel
Fig 1: Timber Lintel

Timber lintel is the most common. They’re still used in hilly locations where timber planks are plentiful. They are, however, phased out in favor of a range of newer forms. They are unable to withstand high loads, particularly bending strains. The designer chooses to sandwich the beam board in mild steel plates with huge windows or apertures from top to bottom. They become more durable and long-lasting as a result of this.

The steel bolts hold the timber lintel beam in place, which is more expensive, less durable, and prone to fire. The most serious drawback of a timber lintel is its vulnerability to fire. It is brittle and less durable. It necessitates adequate ventilation. Otherwise, the rot will destroy the beam.

2. Stone Lintels:
Stone lintel beams are used in locations where the stone is readily available, and thicknesses are essential in their design. They are also used to cover holes in brick walls. The stone lintel’s thickness is an important consideration in its design. The stone lintel is the shapes of a single piece with a thickness of 4cm every 30cm length of the span. And a minimum thickness of 8cm as a thumb rule.

They’re commonly applied in mountainous constructions since they’re too heavy, and alternative materials for their construction aren’t readily available. Some disadvantages stone lintels are:

Fig 2 Stone Lintel
Fig 2: Stone Lintel

  • Because of their low tensile strength, they are not used in buildings subjected to vibratory loads.
  • Its delivery is difficult to install in cities because of its complexity.
  • A stone lintel cannot tolerate excessive transverse tension.

3. Brick Lintels:
Fig 3 Brick Lintel
Fig 3: Brick Lintel

Lintels are made of first-class brick that is durable and well-burned. Bricks on end, bricks on edge, and coursed bricks set horizontally over openings are all options. This type of lintel is used when the entrance is tiny (less than 1m) and the light load. Their depth ranges from 10 cm (one brick thickness) to 20 cm, depending on the span. Standard blocks have less shear resistance at end joints than bricks with frogs filled with mortar.

4. Steel Lintels:
Fig 4 Steel Lintel
Fig 4: Steel Lintel

These lintels, made primarily of rolling steel joists embedded in concrete, are utilized over big openings, especially when they must sustain a substantial load of solid walls in places like storefronts and bay windows. These are also known as bressummers. Lintels made of steel angles or concrete channel sections are sometimes used for narrow spans and light loads, especially when there isn’t enough room above to support an arch or create a relieving arch. They are so expensive, only used in exceptional circumstances.

These are normally three rolled steel joists or channel sections joined together by tube separators or cross-bolts at the right spacing. To protect the built-up steel parts from corrosion and fire. For bond or grip between the steel section and the concrete, a strip of metal lathing or wire netting is placed at the bottom of the steel section before it is concreted.

5. Reinforced Concrete Lintels:
The reinforced concrete lintel is used to span window and door openings because of its rigidity, strength, economy, fire resistance, and ease of building used in structures. The lintel is reinforced cement concrete and can support any span or load.

The depth is determined by the load’s size and the length of the span. In comparison, the width is equal to the wall’s width.

Fig 5 Reinforced Concrete Lintels
Fig 5: Reinforced Concrete Lintels

Half of these bars are cranked at the ends of the reinforced cement concrete lintel, and the primary reinforcement provides at the bottom. Shear stirrups are used to withstand transverse shear in the structure.

6. Reinforced Brick Lintels:
Fig 6 Reinforced Brick Lintels
Fig 6: Reinforced Brick Lintels

Heavy loads and larger span lengths are challenges with brick lintels. Reinforcing bars can help with these issues. As a result, reinforced brick lintels offer more support than plain brick lintels. The reinforced brick lintels have a depth of 10 cm or a multiple of 10 cm (or one brick thickness).

The bricks are positioned to have enough lengthwise space between adjacent bricks to install mild steel reinforcement bars. Once the insertion bars are fitted, the remaining gap is filled with 1:3 cement mortars—6 mm bars employed as vertical stirrups at every third vertical joint. Primary reinforcement provides by 8 to 10 mm bars positioned at the bottom.

Advantages of Lintel:

  • They are simple to construct and look to be simpler.
  • If the load is evenly placed, they may sustain a significant weight.
  • Because no excessive load is given to the lintels’ ending supports, they are not necessary to build solidly.
  • Frameworks are affordable, and lintel centering is simple.
  • They have a basic and delicate appearance.

Disadvantages of Lintel:

  • Since the bottom is under tension and the topside is under compression.
  • The maximum weight of lintel that can support.
  • The weight of each piece.

These are the different varieties of lintels and their characteristics. All lintels have distinct features, and the type of lintel is chosen by the type of building, its design, and the region in which it is taking place.

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6. Rajput, K. (2021, October 19). What Is Lintel Beam | Lintel Beam Size | 7 Types of Lintel Beam. Civil Jungle.

Different Types of Arches in Construction

What is Arch?
An arch is a curved architectural shape that takes loads around an entrance and transfers them to abutments, jambs, or piers on either side of the arch’s profile. Since the Etruscans, arches have been a popular architectural feature, credited with inventing them, though the Romans refined and popularized them. Many other structural forms, such as vaults, arcades, and bridges, have evolved from the techniques used to design and construct arches.

There are no tensile stresses in arches because they are compressive constructions. They are self-supporting and are held in compression by the force of gravity acting on their weight. It makes them extremely stable and efficient, allowing them to span greater distances and carry heavier weights than horizontal beams.


Different types of Roofs used in Buildings

A roof is the highest component of a building that serves as a structural covering to protect the structure from the elements (i,e from rain, sun, wind, etc). Roofs are built in the same way as upper floors in terms of structure, albeit the shape of their upper surfaces may differ. Roofs have been built in a range of shapes and sizes, including flat, pitched, vaulted, domed, and combinations, depending on technical, economic, and aesthetic concerns.

A roof is made up of a structural element that holds the roof covering in place. Trusses, portal beams, slabs (with or without beams), shells, and domes are examples of structural elements. A.C. sheets, G.I. sheets, hardwood shingles, tiles, slates, or the slab itself can all be used as roof coverings.


Different types of windows used in building

A window is an opening place in a building that is usually built over the wall to enable sunshine, free air circulation, and an outside view as well as the passage of sound. Windows are crucial for the ventilation of a room. Timber, steel, and aluminium are the most frequent materials used to make windows.

A number of critical aspects must be considered and followed when choosing a window for a building, including the temperature of that place, the location of the room, the size of the room, the wind direction to the room, the utility of the room where the window must be fixed, and the architectural point of view.


Automated Construction By Contour Crafting

Prof. Amol B. Kawade, Miss. Chaitali R. Satpute
Amrutvahini College of Engineering, Sangamner

Although automation has advanced in manufacturing, the growth of automation in construction has been slow. Conventional methods of manufacturing automation do not lend themselves to construction of large structures with internal features. This may explain the slow rate of growth in construction automation. Contour Crafting (CC) is a recent layered fabrication technology that has a great potential in automated construction of whole structures as well as sub-components. Using this process, a single house or a colony of houses, each with possibly a different design, may be automatically constructed in a single run, imbedded in each house all the conduits for electrical, plumbing and air-conditioning. Our research also addresses the application of CC in building habitats on other planets. CC will most probably be one of the very few feasible approaches for building structures on other planets, such as Moon and Mars, which are being targeted for human colonization before the end of the new century. Contour Crafting is an emerging technology that uses robotics to construct free form building structures by repeatedly laying down layers of material such as concrete. The Contour Crafting technology scales up automated additive fabrication from building small industrial parts to constructing buildings. Optimal machine operation planning for Contour Crafting benefits the technology by increasing the efficiency of construction, especially for complicated structures. The research reported here has aimed at providing a systematic solution for improving the overall Contour Crafting system efficiency in building custom-designed buildings. An approach is first presented to find the optimal machine operation plan for the single nozzle Contour Crafting system. Other approaches are then presented to determine collision-free operation plans for machines with multiple nozzles. The models developed incorporate physical constraints as well as some practical construction issues.


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