A culvert is a structure designed to allow the passage of water, such as a stream or drainage, under a road, railway, or similar obstruction. It is an essential component of the transportation infrastructure, preventing flooding, maintaining water flow, and ensuring the integrity of the road or railway above. Culverts are typically constructed using durable concrete, steel, or plastic materials. They come in various shapes and sizes, depending on the specific requirements of the site and the volume of water that needs to be conveyed. Common culvert shapes include round, box, elliptical, and pipe arch.
The design and installation of culverts consider factors such as the anticipated water flow, the terrain, and the environmental considerations of the surrounding area. Proper design ensures that the trench can withstand the hydraulic forces exerted by the flowing water while maintaining structural integrity.