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Civil Engineering Information

What are the Types of Frame Structures?

What is Frame Structure?
Framing is the process of mixing building materials to form the framework of a building. As a result, a framed structure uses beams, columns, and a slab to withstand gravity and other lateral loads. As a rule, these structures are employed to counteract the pressures and moments that emerge from the loading.

Characteristics of a Frame Structure:

  • A-frame structure is a carefully arranged set of beams, columns, and slabs that can withstand the tremendous stresses and moments generated by severe gravity and lateral loads.
  • They come together to form a framework of steel or concrete that supports the weight and transmits it to the ground without incident.
  • In a framed structural system, walls are used to enclose the resulting cavity. There are two types of walls here: load-bearing and non-load-bearing. Shear walls make up the bulk of the framed building’s load-bearing walls.
  • Pin or permanent connections join the frame’s structural parts.
  • Consequently, beams, columns, slabs, and shear walls are a framed structure’s primary structural or load-carrying elements (load-bearing walls).
  • The framework of a building may be fabricated from a wide variety of materials.

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Different Types of Loads used in Construction and Structure

What is Load?
Loads are the forces that can result in stresses, deformations, or accelerations. There are numerous different types of structural loads that can act on a structure. Its nature will differ depending on the design, usage, location, and materials. When a structure fails, it is almost always because its load-carrying capacity is inadequate for its actual load. Compression, Tension, and Shear are all possible types of structural loads.

In the field of structural analysis, engineers examine the effects of loads on structures and structural components. It is important to keep an eye on how much weight a structure can handle to avoid structural failure. Structural problems and even failure can result from various loads, which can cause stress, displacement, or deformation. An important and difficult task is determining the total load on a structure.
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Site Preparation of Building Construction Project

What is Site Preparation?
The term “site preparation” describes the actions taken before an engineer begins their work. The site cleared in preparation for the new building is called the old or unfriendly site. Since the land and structures already there are suitable for the construction work that will soon begin there, site preparation is not required.

Before construction, the site must be prepared by demolishing old buildings, clearing building sites, mapping underground services and wires, doing a site survey and layout, and treating termites. To get a construction site ready, blasting, test drilling, landfilling, leveling, earth-moving, excavating, land drainage, and other types of land preparation. Construction Work on preparing the site is important for any project. Before the main building work begins, a construction site needs to be set up.

There may be a lot of obstacles on the construction site, such as old buildings or structures, big trees, sloping ground, loose soil, and underground services. It could cause problems when building. For construction projects to go smoothly, the site must be ready for the building before work can begin.
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Types of Bridge Railings

The fundamental objective of a bridge railing system is to offer public safety along the length and edges of the bridge. This includes rerouting rogue automobiles back onto the road without posing a safety threat, as well as guaranteeing the safety of bicyclists and pedestrians. Although bridge railing systems do not provide structural support, they must be crashworthy. Bridge railing, as a result, differs from ordinary highway railing in that it is more rigid than flexible highway railing. Because it provides a progressive shift in the stiffness of the two railing systems, transition railing is utilized to connect the two railing systems. Railing design and needs have changed as vehicle size and power have changed.

The most recent standard for crash testing devices on the National Highway System is the AASHTO Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH). It entails diverting errant vehicles back onto the road without endangering the public’s health and guaranteeing the safety of bikers and pedestrians. Although the bridge’s railing systems do not offer structural support, they must be crashworthy. However, because it was intended for the standards at the construction time, much of the original bridge railing does not fulfill current code requirements. Because it is understood that repairing all of this railing would be prohibitively expensive, authorities frequently allow it to remain in place until needed.

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Different Types of Slabs Used in Construction and Their Uses, Advantages & Disadvantages

What is a Slab?
Slabs create flat, usually horizontal surfaces in building floors, roofs, bridges, and other constructions. Walls can support the slab, and reinforced concrete beams are normally cast monolithically with the slab, structural steel beams, columns, or the earth itself.

Different Types of Slabs Used in Construction:
1. Flat Slab:
Fig 1 Flat Slab
Fig 1: Flat Slab
Courtesy: civildigital.com

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