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Concrete Engineering

What is Concrete Bonding Agent? Explain its Types and Uses

Introduction:
Concrete is a building material made of cement, aggregates (rock and sand), water, and additives (chemicals that enhance or modify the properties of concrete). There are a lot of chemicals used in construction now. From concrete admixtures to sealants, grouts, bonding agents, and waterproofing chemicals, the construction chemicals industry has a wide range of products. The construction industry uses these chemicals in a lot of different ways. These construction chemicals can make concrete stronger, and when used in different ways and amounts, they can also help get around many other problems. One chemical that is used in concrete is a “bonding agent.” This article will discuss concrete bonding agents and different types of concrete bonding agents.

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Crazing of Concrete – Causes and Prevention

Introduction:
When the top layer of concrete shrinks, random cracks or fissures appear on the surface, known as crazing in concrete floors; conditions and curing techniques used when the concrete is set out, as well as how it is completed, are to blame. They cause the immediate surface to shrink differently than the underlying concrete because they are linked to early surface drying or chilling. When the surface was exposed during placement to low humidity, high air or concrete temperature, scorching sun, or any combination of these, the concrete surface dried up, which is what caused crazing.

Fig1: Crazing of Concrete
Fig1: Crazing of Concrete
Courtesy: engineeringnews.co.za
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Hot Weather Concreting

Introduction:
Hot weather can be defined as any time when the temperature is high enough that extra care must be taken to ensure that concrete is handled, put down, finished, and allowed to cure properly. Most problems with hot weather happen in the summer, but high winds, low relative humidity, and solar radiation can happen at any time, especially in arid or tropical climates. When it’s hot outside, the moisture on the surface of the concrete can evaporate quickly, which can cause several problems. High relative humidity generally reduces the effects of high temperature.
Hot Weather Concreting
Fig: Hot Weather Concreting
Courtesy: carboncure.com

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Different Types of Concrete Used in Construction

A world that is always changing necessitates the development of new construction methods. Concrete is one of the most extensively utilized construction materials today. It is due to the wide range of uses it provides and its behavior, strength, affordability, durability, and adaptability. As a result, construction workers trust concrete as a safe, robust, and simple material. It’s used in a wide range of structures (from single-family homes to multi-story office buildings) and infrastructure (roads, bridges, etc.). Concrete is used to construct foundations, columns, beams, slabs, and other load-bearing structures.

What is Concrete?
Concrete is a basic material used in civil engineering, such as constructing structures. Concrete is cement, sand, and fine and coarse rock aggregate mixture. The cement works as a binder, holding the components together as it sets and hardens over time. Other types of binding materials are employed in addition to cement, such as lime concrete, bitumen, asphalt, etc.

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Plasticizers for Concrete – Principle, Types & Advantages

Introduction:
Depending on the case, you may need to be more or less practical. Deep beams, thin water-holding structures with a lot of steel support, connections between columns and beams, pouring concrete, pumping concrete, and working in hot weather all require a high level of workability in the concrete. Adding water is the most common form of abuse, usually done without any engineering on the spot. Adding water to concrete makes it more flexible, but it needs to be easier to work with. It won’t make a mixture more even or regular. Instead, it makes it more likely that people will fight and die. Plasticizers make concrete stronger and last longer by reducing the amount of water and cement needed to reach a certain level of workability. Since the heat of hydration of mass concrete goes down when the cement weight goes down, plasticizers can do this.

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Durability of Concrete

Introduction
Durability of concrete implies that a concrete can withstand any harsh environment without undergoing any change in structure. IS 456-2000 has specified norms that address the issues of the durability of concrete. Usually, a concrete can stand severe environment but when certain conditions like sea water exposure or sulphate and chloride attack is encountered with concrete then it becomes difficult for concrete to withstand such exposures. In such cases, along with concrete certain additives like accelerators or admixtures are required to add with concrete to make it durable. All these will be discussed in details here.

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What is Dowel Bar in Construction?

Introduction:
In the modern world, concrete is the most popular building material for many different types of buildings. Concrete pavements are one of the essential components of a construction site. Concrete slabs are made and put in place to make a solid pavement that can handle the traffic. Construction workers use dowel bars to ensure these pavements are strong and stable. These bars help make sure that the concrete slabs are mechanically connected in the right way.

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What is Refractory Concrete- Installation, Types and Uses

Introduction:
Improvements in building materials are constantly being made. The construction industry relies on wide concrete varieties for its many varied projects. Various constructions use refractory concrete to withstand high temperatures. Normal concrete melts at a particular temperature. High-alumina cement is often used to make refractory concrete, which can withstand high temperatures, along with aggregates that can also withstand heat.
Refractory ConcreteFig: Refractory Concrete
Courtesy: monolithicrefractoriesonline.com

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Retaining Walls And Their Applications

INTRODUCTION
Retaining walls are structures which are designed and constructed to resist lateral pressure of soil. When there appears a change in ground elevation that exceeds angle of repose of soil then these walls prove effective. These types of walls are used in construction of buildings having basements, bridges, roads, etc. when it is necessary to retain embankments or earth in a relatively vertical position. These are supported by rock or soil underlying the base slab or supported on piles. When these walls retain earth or any such material in earthen embankments for railways, roads, wing walls of bridges and many more, then such earth or any such material is referred to as backfill. In order to design such walls is mandatory to determine the pressure exerted by and acting on plane faces of soil. Retaining walls can be designed by Working Stress Method or Limit State Method. In both methods Rankine’s theory of earth pressure is used which consists of both passive earth pressure and active earth pressure. By finding stresses we can estimate and design these walls.
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Curing of Concrete

Introduction
Curing is the process of providing moisture to the concrete mix so that better interlocking is established. If curing is not done properly then it will cause insufficient hydration and as a result there will be capillary pores, causing cracks and shrinkage. Moreover, strength and durability will also get affected and the concrete will disintegrate and break. It also ensures to maintain a sufficient temperature of concrete at its early age. It must be implemented as soon as placement & finishing is done. Also, it must continue for a specific period for the concrete to achieve its desired strength and durability. Uniform temperature is necessary to avoid thermal shrinkage cracks, plastic shrinkage and problems like bleeding and segregation.

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