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Concrete Engineering

Grillage Foundation – Design, Installation & Types

What Grillage Foundation?
Grillage foundations are made of one, two, or more levels of beams (usual steel) superimposed on a layer of concrete to distribute load across a large area. It is found at the bottom of the columns. These layers are concrete-encased and at right angles to one another. This foundation form commonly supports heavy building columns, piers, and scaffolds.

Even though foundation and grillage appear to be the same, they are not. Grillage disperses huge loads across broad areas, similar to how foundations distribute the load from the structure to the ground.

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Retaining Wall – Function, Types, Advantages & Disadvantages

What is a Retaining Wall?
In technology, a retaining wall could be a significant reasonable construction. The first function of the wall is to keep the earth or other materials vertical or near-vertical. This wall is commonly used in various applications, including road, railway, bridge, irrigation engineering, land reclamation, and coastal engineering. The vertical or inclined stem is solid monolithically joined to a base block. These are considered suitable up to a height of 6 meters.

Retaining walls are solid wall structures that support soil laterally to keep the ground surface at distinct elevations on both sides of the building. If a retaining wall is not present, the soil at a higher elevation will tend to sink until it reaches its natural, stable shape.

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Types of Concrete Finishes

Concrete is a special construction material that is commonly utilized in the construction industry. Concrete comprises the right proportions of cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, and water. Finishing is one of the most important parts of concrete after it has been cast because it gives the concrete’s surface a pleasant appearance. Compressing, leveling, and smoothing the concrete surface is concrete surface finishing.

The most basic concrete finishes are smooth surfaces created with screeds and trowels. Work screed is used to level the concrete surface after being poured in form.
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Concrete Blocks – Types, Uses, Advantages & Disadvantages

A Concrete Block is a ‘Building Block’ composed entirely of concrete that is then mortared together to make an imposing, long-lasting construction. These construction blocks can be ‘Hollow’ or ‘Solid,’ formed of ordinary or lightweight concrete in various specified sizes, depending on the precise requirements. Concrete blocks come in various shapes and sizes, and they can be solid or hollow. 39cm x 19cm x (30cm or 20 cm or 10cm) or 2 inch, 4 inch, 6 inch, 8 inch, 10 inch, and 12-inch unit configurations are the most popular concrete block sizes. Concrete blocks are made from cement, aggregate, and water. In concrete blocks, the cement-aggregate ratio is 1:6.

Types of Concrete Blocks:
There are two types of concrete blocks:
1. Solid Concrete Blocks
2. Hollow Concrete Blocks

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Creep of concrete and their effects

Deformation of a structure due to a sustained load is known as concrete creep. Concrete can alter shape if it is subjected to prolonged strain or stress. This deformation occurs most often in the direction of the applied force. A concrete column compressing or a beam bending are examples of this. Concrete does not always fail or break down as a result of creep. When a load is applied to concrete, an instantaneous elastic strain occurs, which develops into creep strain if the load is sustained.

Concrete’s stress-strain curve is not a straight line, and at a certain value, the strain will continue to increase without a substantial increase in stress. The time-dependent component of the tension that arises as a result of stress is also known as concrete creep.

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