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Partial Replacement of Cement With Marble Powder in Concrete

Vijayvenkatesh Chandrasekaran
Final year student, Department of Civil Engineering, St. Josephs college of engineering & technology, Thanjavur, India.

Marble powder is one of the most active research areas that encompass a number of disciplines including civil engineering and construction materials. The marble industry inevitably produces wastes, irrespective of the improvements introduced in manufacturing processes. In the marble industry, about 50 to 60% production waste. These waste create many environmental dust problems in now a day to day society. In requiring a suitable form of management in order to achieve sustainable development. In this paper explained about the behavior of concrete with partial replacement of cement with added percentage values of marble powder and attain required strength. Partial replacement of marble powder in cement accordingly in the range of 20%, 30%, 40%, by weight for M20 grade of concrete. With this experimental research work the problem of waste production management of this agro waste are will be solved. It analyzed the research work the compressive strength, flextural strength, split tensile strength values at 7, 14, 28 day. The test results show that the compressive strength, split-tensile strength and flexural strengths are achieved up to 30% to 40% replacement of cement with marble powder without affecting the characteristic strength of M20(1:1.5:3) grade concrete.

KEYWORDS: Cement (53 grade), Marble powder, Fine aggregate (M-sand), Coarse aggregate (20mm size).

This paper aims to focus on the possibilities of using waste materials from different manufacturing activities in the preparation of innovative mortar and concrete. Marble stone industry generates both solid waste and stone slurry. Leaving the waste materials to the environment directly can cause environmental problems. Advance concrete technology can reduce the consumption of natural resources and energy sources, thereby less the burden of pollutants on the environment. We describe the feasibility of using the marble sludge dust in concrete production as partial replacement of cement. These materials, participate in the hydraulic reactions, contributing significantly to the composition and microstructure of hydrated product. Presently large amounts of marble dust are generated in natural stone processing plants with an important impact on the environment and humans. This project describes the feasibility of using the marble sludge dust in concrete production as partial replacement of cement. In INDIA, the marble and granite stone processing is one of the most thriving industry the effects if varying marble dust contents on the physical and mechanical properties of fresh and hardened concrete have been investigated. The use of the replacement materials offer cost reduction, energy savings, arguably superior products, and fewer hazards in the environment. In this project our main objective is to study the influence of partial replacement of cement with marble powder , and to compare it with the compressive and tensile strength of ordinary M20 concrete. We are also trying to find the percentage of marble powder replaced in concrete that makes the strength of the concrete maximum. The nowadays marble powder has become a pollutant. So , by partially replacing cement with marble powder, we are proposing a method that can be of great use in reducing pollution to a great extent.


Cement (OPC):

The cement used to be ordinary Portland cement 53 (OPC 53).All properties of cement were determined by referring IS 12269 – 1987. The specific gravity of cement is 3.15. The initial and final setting times were found as 55 minutes and 258 minutes respectively. Standard consistency of cement was 30%.

Fine aggregate:
M- sand was used as fine aggregate. The specific gravity and fineness modulus was 2.55 and 2.93 respectively.

Coarse aggregate:
The 20mm size aggregates-The coarse aggregates with size of 20mm were tested and the specific gravity value of 2.78 and fineness modulus of 7 find and selected. The coarse aggregate fine angular sharpened edges aggregates were available from local sources.

Potable water used for mixing and curing purposes. Preparing of concrete and for this purpose used in the Water cement ratio is W/C of 0.52 (52%) water range 6 to 7.5PPM.

Marble powder:
The marble dust is obtained from RAK ceramics. The specific gravity of tile dust is found to be 2.62 and the fineness is found to be 7.5%.

The evaluation of tile powder which is used as a replacement of cement material begins with the concrete testing. With the conventional concrete 20%, 30%, 40% of the tile powder replaced with cement. weight batching is done by volume, but most specifications required that batching be done by mass rather than volume. Cement: 53 grade (OPC), Content=330kg/m3. Combination material mix proportion: (M20 grade) 1:1.5:3 is 10262-2009.

Batching and mixing of materials:
Batching of materials was done by weight. The percentage replacements of Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) by marble powder were, 20%, 30% and 40%.

Concrete Mix Design:
The concrete used in this research work was made using Binder, Sand and Gravel. The concrete mix proportion was 1:2:4 by weight.

Test specimens:
Test specimens consisting of 150×150×150 mm cubes for Compressive strength, 150mm dia, 300mm Length cylinders for split tensile strength and 150×150×700 mm beam for flextural strength using different percentage glass fiber for M20 grade of concrete mix were cast and tested as per IS: 516 and 1199.

Curing of concrete:
Casting of concrete after the completion of 24 hours mould will be removed then cured by using portable Water. The specimen is fully immersed in potable water for specific age of 7, 14, 28 days. After the Completion of curing it will be tested.


1. Compressive Strength Tests on Concrete Cubes:

The results of the compressive strength tests on concrete cubes are shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Compressive Strength of Concrete Cubes with various percentages of marble powder:

Marble powder % of replacement  






20% 15.54N/mm2 25.56N/mm2 31N/mm2
30% 15.25N/mm2 22.30N/mm2 29.50N/mm2
40% 14.50N/mm2 21N/mm2 24N/mm2


Fig 1 -Compressive Strength Tests on Concrete Cubes

2. Split tensile strength Test on Concrete Cylinder:
The result of the Split tensile strength on concrete cylinder is shown in table 2.

Marble powder % of replacement  






20% 3.80N/mm2 4.15N/mm2 4.20N/mm2
30% 3.40N/mm2 3.75N/mm2 4.10N/mm2
40% 3.25N/mm2 3.45N/mm2 3.9N/mm2


Fig 2 - Split tensile strength Test on Concrete Cylinder

3. Flextural strength test on concrete beams:
The result of the Flextural strength of concrete cylinder is shown in table 3.

Marble powder % of replacement  






20% 6.10N/mm2 10.15N/mm2 10.50N/mm2
30% 5.75N/mm2 9.75N/mm2 10.24N/mm2
40% 5.20N/mm2 9.15N/mm2 10.10N/mm2


Fig 3 - Flextural strength test on concrete beams

The result of the test, it is recommended that optimum values of 30%, 40% marble powder. The use of local materials like MP as pozzolans should be encouraged in concrete production. Similar studies are recommended for concrete beams and slab sections to ascertain the flextural behavior of better bonding strength made with this material. Durability studies of concrete cubes made with MP as partial replacement for cement should be carried out.

Due to marble dust, it proved to be very effective in assuring very good cohesiveness of mortar and concrete. From the above study, it is concluded that the marble dust can be used as a replacement material for cement ; and 30 to 40% replacement of marble dust gives an excellent result in strength aspect and quality aspect. The results showed that the substitution of 30 to 40% of the cement content by marble stone dust induced higher compressive strength, and improvement of properties related to durability. Test results show that this industrial waste is capable of improving hardened concrete performance up to 30%, enhancing fresh concrete behavior and can be used in plain concrete.


[1] Lalji Prajapati, I. N. Patel, V. V. Agarwal “Analysis Of The Strength And Durability Of The Concrete With Partially Replaced By The Ceramic Slurry Waste Powder”. IJETAE:International Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Vol. 4, Issue 3, March- 2014, PP.725-729.
[2] Amitkumar D. Raval, Dr.Indrajit N. Patel, Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda, “Reuse Of Ceramic Industry Wastes For The Elaboration Of Eco-efficient Concrete”. International Journal Of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies, Vol. 2, Issue 3, April- June, 2013 PP. 103–105.
[3] F.Pacheco Torgal, A. Shahsavandi, S. Jalali, “Mechanical Properties And Durability Of Concrete With Partial Replacement Of Portland Cement By Ceramic Wastes”. 1St International Conference, September 12th – 14th 2011.
[4] Electricwala Fatima, Ankit Jhamb, Rakesh Kumar, “ Ceramic Dust as Construction Material in Rigid Pavement”. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 2013, Vol. 1, No. 5, 112-116.
[5] Jay Patel, Dr. (Smt.) B. K. Shah, Prof. P.J.Patel, “The Potential Pozzolanic Activity of Different Ceramic Waste Powder as Cement Mortar Component (Strength Activity Index)” International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 9, Number 6, Mar 2014.

We at are thankful to Er. Vijayvenkatesh Chandrasekaran for submitting this very useful paper to us. We hope this will provide valuable insights to those seeking more information on this topic.

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Kanwarjot Singh

Kanwarjot Singh is the founder of Civil Engineering Portal, a leading civil engineering website which has been awarded as the best online publication by CIDC. He did his BE civil from Thapar University, Patiala and has been working on this website with his team of Civil Engineers.

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