Awarded as the best online publication by CIDC

Project Reports

Underground Construction Techniques

By
Laxmanagouda
GEC HUVINA HADAGALI

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL
The various underground construction methods discussed as options for the example facility must be evaluated on a site-specific basis, since factors such as site geology will vary significantly in different locales. The advantages and disadvantages of each option must be weighed, and each alternative’s costs and energy use must -be evaluated. The most effective options can .then be considered in terms of the various constraints posed by the individual site.

The article summarizes the challenges and considerations during planning, execution and commissioning of underground sections of metro. The work of fixing the alignment starts with fixing up the location of the station box, availability of the land in the close proximity of major origin/destination points or nodes which are dense passenger traffic junction is important. There are the instances when separate vacant land at these locations is not available, and in all such cases stations are planned below roads. Consideration of buildings nearby, no. of trees affected, possible traffic diversion, soil strata, utilities, access to the residents nearby are few points which are kept in mind the location of the station. Suitability from point of view of traffic integration is also a main criterion for fixing station locations. Stations are planned in such a way so as to be near established traffic interchange nodes so that they fit in the existing transport network and provide seamless intermodal transfer.

(more…)

Experimental Investigation On The Effect Of Bagasse Ash And Rubber Tyre Waste In Concrete

By
Pravesh Shukla

Abstract
The utilization of industrial and agricultural waste produced by industrial process has been the focus on waste reduction research for economical, environmental and technical reasons. SCBA is a fibrous waste product of the sugar refining industry, along with ethanol vapour. Bagasse ash mainly contains aluminium ion and silica. The use of SCBA as a pozzolonic material for producing high strength concrete. OPC is partially replaced with finely SCBA. At present the disposal of waste tyre is becoming a major waste management problem in the world. In this project, the bagasse ash has been chemically and physically characterized and partially replaced in the ratio of 0%, 5%, 15% and 25% by weight of cement in concrete. The mix proportion for M30 grade concrete was derived. Rubber tyre waste has been used as coarse aggregate with replacement of conventional coarse aggregate and it is taken as constant of 10%.

(more…)

Plastic Cracking of Concrete

By
Shubham Sunil Malu

1.0 INTRODUCTION:
Cracking is one of the major issues in concrete. Since concrete has various physical and chemical properties it is prone to cracking. Its elimination is not possible totally but it can be restricted or reduced to a certain extent. Mostly, cracking goes on a microscopic scale and does not appear visibly as a fault. If the cracking goes on a macroscopic scale it can result in loss of strength, stability and durability. It can also cause decrease in sound insulation and overall efficiency besides affects aesthetics to a greater extent.

The main causes of cracking are as follows:

  • Ageing – Carbonation
  • Foundation problems
  • Weathering Actions
  • Improper or modified use of the structure
  • Poor maintenance
  • Progressive loading
  • Deficiencies in design
  • Poor quality of concrete material
  • Improper concrete mix
  • Movement of concrete arising from physical properties
  • Poor workmanship and negligence
  • Over trowelling and impermeable formwork
  • Reduced continuity of the structural member
  • Defects and errors in construction practices
  • Improper structural repairs or modification
  • Chemical attacks by Chlorides and Sulphates
  • Differential thermal stress – Heat of hydration of cement

(more…)

Batching and Mixing of Mortar And Concrete Ingredients

By
Shubham Sunil Malu

ABSTRACT:
A concrete plant, also known as batch plant is device that combines various ingredients to form concrete. In general, it is a process of combining all ingredients of concrete as per the mix design. Batching and mixing are extremely important parts of mortar and concrete manufactures they influence properties of concrete both in plastic as well as in hardened stages. Also, it is one of the important processes, which is to be done to obtain a quality concrete. Many processes are carried out in various parts of the world with many changes and different equipment. There are various types of batching and mixing equipment and methods that is to say from manual to most sophisticated computerized batching and mixing. Mechanization improves quality of batching and mixing, its speed and thereby can most often result in economy.There are number of factors which are to be considered while doing the process which are discussed in this paper. Moreover, the machinery, which is to be required while making concrete or for batching process and discharging and unloading of the mixture, are also discussed in brief.
1.0 INTRODUCTION:

(more…)

High Quality Cement and its Usage

By
Shubham Sunil Malu

ABSTRACT:
Concrete is a basic building material that will continue to be in demand far into the future. A world without concrete, and its dominant precursor, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), is hard to imagine. Although there are different types of concrete that have been developed for use in different applications, their common virtues are familiarity, versatility, strength, durability, wide availability, fire resistance, resistance to the elements and comparatively low cost.Cement industry is growing at a rapid pace in India and over the globe. Many new brands are available in the market but selection of good cement is very important for an engineer. Many a time construction project fails due to poor quality of cement.

This paper will show you what are the factors affecting the selection of cement and cement strength classification. Also, the quality control of cement and need of consistency of quality in cement. Thus the project, can be secured to extent with the selection of proper quality of cement.

(more…)