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New Civil Engineering Topics

What is Road Pattern and Types of Road Patterns

Road patterns are very important to the growth of a city’s neighborhoods. On the other hand, recent city growth has yet to pay much attention to studying road patterns. It has led to many roads that don’t connect, as well as housing and business developments built far away from roads far from the center of town.

As the distance between where people live and where most of the businesses are in a city grows, more and more people need cars to do their daily travel chores. The way the roads are set up also makes it take longer for emergency vehicles to get to a certain place. There are different kinds of road patterns used on highways. A road pattern is when a road is built in a rectangular pattern, radial Pattern, hexagonal Pattern, etc., to help manage traffic.

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Foundation Settlement – Causes, Types and Preventive Measures

The lowest level of a building is its base, also called its foundation. So, the structure’s load (or loads) can be safely transferred to the ground below. The stability of a building’s foundation is one of the most important parts of how well it works. A good foundation ensures the ground is kept from what it can handle. Even though it can, the ground sinks under the weight. The amount of the settlement is in a good range.

Additionally, many factors, such as soil type and how the foundation is constructed, can affect the total amount of foundation settlement. Foundations built on bedrock move very little. On the other hand, foundations in other kinds of soil, like clay, may sink much more. Since it was built in the early 1930s, the Mexico City Palace of Fine Arts has settled more than 15 feet (4.5m) into the clay soil on which it is built. On the other hand, foundation settlement is usually limited to millimeters or fractions of an inch. When a building’s foundation settles quickly, it can cause damage to the building.

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Types of Glass Used in Construction

Glass, ever since it was first crafted around 500 BC, has fascinated humans. Glass has come a long way since it was once believed to have magical abilities. It’s been around for quite some time and is still used because of how adaptable and long-lasting it is. With the advent of modern architecture at the turn of the 20th century, cities became urban factories where concrete, glass, and steel were mass-produced. This philosophy was useful in meeting the demand for homes among the expanding middle class. Buildings made of glass and steel have come to represent progress in many countries because of the positive connotations that its inhabitants associate with wealth and luxury.

What is Glass?
Glass is the oldest and the most elegant material used in construction and other fields. In most cases, glass is used because it improves the aesthetic value of the building. Ever since it was first discovered, people have found glass to be an intriguing substance. Glass is a tough, see-through substance. Glass is made by heating inorganic materials like quartz or sand. When creating a striking visual effect and a novel interior layout, Glass is the material of choice for many architects. When it comes to building materials, glass is unparalleled in its adaptability.

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Different Types of Steel bars Used in Construction

Steel bars, also known as reinforcement steel or rebar, are essential materials used in construction to provide added strength and durability to concrete structures. They are made from carbon steel and come in various sizes, shapes, and grades. In reinforced concrete structures, steel bars are used to resist tensile forces, which concrete cannot withstand on its own. The steel bars are placed in a grid pattern throughout the concrete structure, providing added support and resistance to bending, cracking, and breaking.

What are Steel Bars?
A steel bar is a long, solid metal rod typically made from carbon or alloy steel. It is a versatile and strong material in construction, manufacturing, and other industries. Steel bars often reinforce concrete structures to increase their strength and durability. They are also commonly used in manufacturing machinery, tools, and equipment, as well as in constructing buildings, bridges, and other infrastructure projects.

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WBM Road – Construction Procedure, Maintenance, Advantages and Disadvantages

WBM is an abbreviation for Water Bound Macadam Road, the most commonly used road construction method for over 100 years. The Water Bound Macadam road is named after Scottish engineer John Loudoun Macadam, who invented and built the WBM road. Water-bound macadam roads have a wearing surface consisting of clean and crushed aggregates that are mechanically interlocked by the rolling Process and bound with each other by the filler material (screening) and water that is laid on the subgrade or base course.
Fig1: WBM Road
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Hydraulic Bridge

Hydraulic bridges, also known as hydraulic engineering or water bridges, have existed for thousands of years. One of the earliest examples of a hydraulic bridge was the aqueduct system built by the ancient Romans, which transported water over long distances to cities and towns. The aqueducts were constructed using a combination of arches and tunnels, and some were also used as bridges to allow people to cross over them.

The hydraulic bridge was developed in medieval Europe to defend castles and other fortifications. These bridges were often built with a mechanism that allowed them to be raised or lowered, allowing access to the castle only to those who knew how to operate it. Hydraulic bridges are used in various applications, from large-scale transportation infrastructure to smaller-scale water management projects. They are often used to control water flow in rivers and streams, provide access to offshore oil rigs, and support the weight of large vehicles such as trains and trucks.

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All You Need to Know About Roof Vents

What is a Roof Vent?
A roof vent, which is brief for roof ventilation, is a system that allows for enough airflow in the attic. These are an essential part of the roofing system. Its major purpose is to prevent the roof from overheating in the summer and moisture buildup in the winter. Regarding health concerns and structural damage, improper roof vent installation can be very costly. Ice dams, mold, and an astronomically high power bill are some of the repercussions of improper roof vent installation.

How Does Roof Ventilation Work?
Proper attic roof ventilation is necessary to avoid condensation in your attic due to overheating. An attic or roof space needs to be aired, and the two most popular methods are:

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How Is Cement Replaced In The Modern World?

Portland cement can be replaced or supplemented with finely divided materials known as “alternative cementitious materials.” Concrete’s technical properties and/or cost are improved and decreased due to their utilization. Fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag, condensed silica fume, limestone dust, cement kiln dust, and natural or manufactured pozzolans are a few examples of these materials. The cement industry is boosting the manufacturing of blended portland cement using industrial by-products, including blast-furnace slags and coal combustion fly ashes, to reduce CO2 emissions. Even though burning fossil fuels is responsible for most CO2 emissions, this only accounts for 50% of the cement industry. The other 50% cannot be eliminated by improving efficiency or switching to alternative energy sources because it is inherent in the chemical reaction that yields calcium carbonate (CaCO3), the main ingredient in cement. Because of this, no cement can be made without releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. As a result, efforts to decarbonize cement manufacturing focus on capturing CO2 rather than reducing the quantity of CO2 in concrete mixtures. However, the high-quality byproducts are few, which calls for an alternative.

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About Civil Engineering

Engineering is a term applied to the profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained by study, experience, and practice, is applied to the efficient use of the materials and forces of nature. Engineers are the ones who have received professional training in pure and applied science. Before the middle of the 18th century, large-scale construction work was usually placed in the hands of military engineers. Military engineering involved such work as the preparation of topographical maps, the location, design, and construction of roads and bridges; and the building of forts and docks; see Military Engineering below. In the 18th century, however, the term civil engineering came into use to describe engineering work that was performed by civilians for nonmilitary purposes.

Civil engineering is the broadest of the engineering fields. Civil engineering focuses on the infrastructure of the world which include Waterworks, Sewers, Dams, Power Plants, Transmission Towers/Lines, Railroads, Highways, Bridges, Tunnels, Irrigation Canals, River Navigation, Shipping Canals, Traffic Control, Mass Transit, Airport Runways, Terminals, Industrial Plant Buildings, Skyscrapers, etc. Among the important subdivisions of the field are construction engineering, irrigation engineering, transportation engineering, soils and foundation engineering, geodetic engineering, hydraulic engineering, and coastal and ocean engineering.

Civil engineers build the world’s infrastructure. In doing so, they quietly shape the history of nations around the world. Most people can not imagine life without the many contributions of civil engineers to the public’s health, safety and standard of living. Only by exploring civil engineering’s influence in shaping the world we know today, can we creatively envision the progress of our tomorrows.

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