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Bolted flange joint is widely used in watermains. In essence, a bolt axial tension is applied by the torque control method. The preload values are recommended by gasket suppliers to control gasket crushing and to achieve proper gasket seating stress. A proper bolt tightening sequence in flanged joints is essential to control stress variation in flange joint components. Otherwise, leakage occurs at flanged pipe joints during operating conditions.
This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.