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Theoretical line and level of pipelines can hardly be achieved in pipe jacking. As such, the provision of angular deflection is made at pipe joints to accommodate such deviation. Normally, maximum allowable angular deflection at pipe joints in pipe jacking is 0.5o.
This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.