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Rock dowels are passive reinforcing elements which need some ground displacement for activation. In installation of rock dowels, a hole is drilled and untensioned steel bars are inserted into the hole. When displacements along joints occur, rock dowels are subject to both shear and tensile stresses. The level and ratio of shear and tensile stress depends on the properties of the surrounding ground, the grout material filling the annular gap between the dowel and the ground and the strength and ductility parameters of the rock dowel itself. Moreover, the degree of dilation during shear displacement affects the level of stress acting within the dowel.
This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.