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List of Projects Related to Environmental Engineering

Following are few topics which can be used for your Project Works. You can choose the project from the list below depending on your field of interest and your project duration.

1 A Study On Construction Waste
2 Approaches To Greenbelt Design
3 Environmental Impact Assessment
4 Bio Gas From Coral Organic Waste
5 Green Buildings For Quality Living
6 Pollution Study Of River Tunghabhadra
7 Environmental Impact Assessment Report
8 Study Of Recycling Industrial Effluent
9 Vehicular Pollution Impact on Environment
10 Effect Of Oil Spill On Marine Environment
11 Utilisation And Recycling Of Treated Waste
12 A Case Study Of Pollution In River Arkavathi
13 Concept of Futuristic Buildings -Green Buildings
14 The Environment-friendly Construction: Related News
15 Recycling And Reuse Of Building Waste In Construction
16 Study On Certain Pollution Parameters Of Bhadra River
17 Off Shore Drilling – Feasible methods to minimize cost
18 What is E-construction? How can it save our planet earth.
19 Environmental Effect On Tungabhadra River Near Harihar Town
20 Eco Friendly Fuels – Importance in big construction projects


21 Environmental Impact Due To The Contamination Of Bellary Nalla
22 Characterisation Of The Fort Lake For Its Quality And Pollution
23 Energy Dissipation Flow Overenvironmental Aspects Of River Valley
24 Environment Suitability For Locating Industries In Raichur Taluka
25 Landslides Causes Environmental Hazards And Rehabilation Measures
26 Heavy Metal Pollution Due To Anthropogenic Activities – A Case Study Of Belgaum Fort Lake
27 Air Pollution Monitoring ( Spm,Sulphur Dioxide,Nitrogen Dioxide) In And Around Mysore City
28 A Study Of Physical Properties Of Fine-grained Soils Under Different Environmental Conditions
29 Analysis Of The State Of Maryland’s Potential Participation In The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative
30 A Study On Environmental Impact Assessment And Impact Management For The Proposed Auto Complex, Shimoga City.
31 Study Of Role Of Judiciary And Citizen In Environment Protection And Sustainable Development In Bidar District

In case you find any error or duplication in the above list, just comment below. You are also free to add more topics in the list by commenting below.

List of Projects Related to Hydraulics

Following are few topics which can be used for your Project Works. You can choose the project from the list below depending on your field of interest and your project duration.

1 Ground Water Inventory
2 Recycling Of Waste Water
3 Dual Purpose Water Supply
4 Water Resources Engineering
5 Water Supply And Sanitation
6 New Development In Hdpe Pipes
7 Domestic Water Treatment Plant
8 Water Supply For Iggor Village
9 Importance of Liners For Canals
10 Study on Ground Water Inventory
11 How to do the Desilting of Tanks
12 Qyality Analysis Of Ground Water
13 Groundwater Pollution An Overview
14 Rain Water Collection And Storage
15 Novel Material For Water Treatment
16 Water Quality Study Of Bhosga Tank
17 Artificial Recharge Of Ground Water
18 Analysis Of Textile Mill Waste Water
19 Water Supply System In Chickballapur
20 Pollution Study Of River Tunghabhadra
21 The Rain Roof Water-harvesting System
22 Water Pollution Due To A Textile Mill
23 Development And Use Of Unit Hydrograph
24 Planning Of Urban Water Supply Schemes
25 Water Quality Study Of Bennitora River
26 Conservation By Waste Water Reclamation
27 Groundwater Recharge Throuth Wastewater
28 Qualitative Anlysis Of Irrigation Water
29 Ground Water Inventory In Kotnur Village
30 Portable Low Cost Ferrocement Water Tank
31 Roof Rainwater Harvesting – A Case Study
32 Biosorption Of Fluoride By Water Hyacinth
33 Underwater Sound System Location In India
34 Water Quality Monitoring Of Madiwala Lake
35 Defluoridation Of Water Using Tamarind Gel
36 Characteristics Of Silk Reeling Waste Water
37 Ground Water Inventory In Nandikoor Village
38 Ground Water Quality Analysis In Bidar Town
39 Ground Water Quality In Udapi Muncipal Area
40 A Case Study Of Pollution In River Arkavathi
41 Ground Water Quality Evaluation Karkala Town
42 Ground Water Studies In Hejmadi Kodi Village
43 Study Of Water Supply System To Bijapur City
44 A comprehensive study on Rain Water Diversion
45 Analysis and design of Ferrocement Water Tank
46 Walkway, Or A Small Car Bridge Over The River.
47 Ground Water Quality Status In Mallathalli Area
48 Raural Water Quality Survey Of Davanagere Taluk
49 Status Report On Ground Water Quality In Tumkur


50 Arsenic Removal From Ground Water By Coagulation
51 Groung Water Convation And Rain Water Harvisting
52 Construction Of Rigid Paverment Vaccum Dewatering
53 Constructional aspects of Interlinking Of Rivers
54 Groundwater Potential And Problems : A Case Study
55 Qualitative Study Of Ground Water In Shimoga City
56 Status Report On Drinking Water Quality In Tumkur
57 Evaluation Of Ground Water Quality In Bijapur City
58 Groundwater Quality At Bommasandra Industrial Area
59 River Training Works By Using Computer Application
60 Studies On Ground Water Qualities In Hoskote Tlauk
61 Studies On Under Ground Water Quality In Bangalore
62 Water Table Contour Map For Kothipur (Ramanagaram)
63 Watershed Modelling For The Catchment Of Hemavathi
64 Design Of Water Treatment Plant To Dodballapur Town
65 Rain Water Harvesting And Ground Water Conservation
66 Studies On Ground Water Quality In Kanakapura Taluk
67 Study Of The Quality Of Water From Shabanur Village
68 Water Resources Development In Developing Countries
69 A Critical Study Of Augmentation Water Supply Scheme
70 Hydrological Aspects Of Drought In Gulbarga District
71 Structure Design To Save Resources – Water Shed Area
72 Studies On Ground Water Quality In Nelamangala Taluk
73 Studies Under Ground Water Quality In Chikkaballapur
74 Study Of Surface Water And Quality Conservation Test
75 The need of mankind in villages – Rural Water Supply
76 Hydrological Aspects Of Small Hydels In Western Ghats
77 Potability Of Natural Tank Waters In Dharwad District
78 Study On Certain Pollution Parameters Of Bhadra River
79 Studies On Ground Water Quality In Doddaballapur Taluk
80 Sub Surface Water Quality Analysis Of Shabanur Village
81 Water Quality Study Of Bhosga Tank And Bennitora River
82 Interlinking Of Indian Rivers -Challenges And Prospects
83 Interlinking Of Indian Riversintrusion Detection System
84 Study Of Heavy Metals In Tungabhadra River Near Harihar
85 Surface Water Pre-treatment Using Floating Media Filter
86 Arsenic Removal From Ground Water By Coagulation Process
87 Coustructioon Of Rigid Pavement Vaccum Dewatering Method
88 Draught Analysis And Water Conservation Of Honnali Taluk
89 Alum Recovery By Acidulation Of Aluminum Hydroxide Sludge
90 Gis – For Rain Water Recharge To Enhance The Ground Water
91 Evaluation Of Mysore City Water Supply Distribution System
92 Groundwater Studies In Hejamadi-kodi Village -A Case Study
93 Studies On Surface Water Quality Conservation In Bangalore
94 Ground Water Conservation By Artificial Recharge Techniques
95 Studeis On Ground Water Quality In Kamakshipallya Bangalore
96 Study Of Groundwater Storage In Bhalki Sub Region Using Erm
97 Ecnomics Analysis Of Water Distribution System For Asegnment
98 Maintainance And Scheduling Of Canals By Using Somosim Model
99 Studies On Surface Water Quality Conservation In Anekal Taluk

100 Ground Water Analysis Around Gimini Distellers Near Nanjanagud
101 Rain Water Recycling Through Artifical Ground Water Recharging
102 Study Of Flourine Content In Ground Water Of Gulbarga District
103 Impact Of Urbanization On Groundwater Resources Of Raichur City
104 Drinking Water Quality Standards Study In And Around Mysore City
105 Proposed Site For Bandhara In Order To Raise Ground Water Level.
106 Studies On Qualitiy Of Drinking Water In Anjaneeya Lay Out Davan
107 Studies On Surface Water Quality Conservation In Bangalore Taluk
108 Application Of Remote Sensing & G.I.S. In Groundwater Prospecting
109 Design Of Alternate Water Treatment System For The City Of Mysore
110 Impact On Ground And Surface Water By Open Dumping Of Solid Waste
111 Intergated Assessment Of Water Quality Status Of Muddebihal Taluk
112 Studies On Surface Water Quality Conservation In Ramnagaram Taluk
113 Characterization Of Coaguation Sludge From A Water Treatment Plant
114 A Critical Study Of Augmentation Of Water Supply Scheme To Gulbarga
115 Water Pollution Studies Of Villages Comming Under Gaddanakeri Mandal
116 A Case Study Of Institutional Water Supply And Waste Disposal Systems
117 A Critical Study Of Augmentation Water Supply Scheme To Gulbarga City
118 Physico-chemical Assessment For Quality Of Water Of River Tungabhadra
119 Geomorphological And Hydrogeochemical Studies Of Nagalapur Halla Basin
120 Irrigation & Water Resources Engineering Irrigation & Water Resoources
121 Ground Water Analysis Around Gemini Distillaries Near Nanjangud-phase-2
122 Hydrogeochemical Studies Of Groundwater Around Pavanje A Costal Village
123 Exploration For Groundwater In Karanja River Basin In Karnataka Using Erm
124 Water Evaporation And Weeds Control By Mulching In Drip Irrigation System
125 Ground Water Investigation In An Island Village Near Pavanje River Estuary
126 Hydrogeochemical Studies Of Groundwater Around Pavanje – A Coastal Village
127 Hydrogeologicalinvestigations, Ground Water Quality And Aquifer Parameters
128 Location Of Sea Water Fresh Water Interface In The Vicinty Of Kre Colleage
129 Examination Of A Gis-based Water Quality Model Using Usgs Gaged Watersheds
130 Hydrogeological Investigations, Ground Water Quality And Aquifer Parameters
131 Study And Analysis Of Water Quality For Suvarnavathi River In Cauvery Basin
132 Treatment And Reuse Of Automobile Service Station Wastewater For Vegetation
133 A Study On Assessment Of Pollution Of Tunga River And Adjoining Ground Water
134 Assessment Of Water Quality Index For Ground Water Case Study-dharwad Taluka
135 Curve Number Based Watershed Model Incorporating Pipe Flow For Western Ghats
136 Feasibility Studies On Roof Top Rainwater Harvesting At N.E.T. Campus, Nitte
137 Groundwater Investigaton Around A Coastal Tract Of Dakshina Kannada District
138 Curve Number Based Watershed Model Incorporating Pipe Flow For Western Ghats
139 Ground Water Potential And Its Quality Assessment Around Kakkaragolla Village
140 Pollution Of Jagat Lake Of Gulbarga City And Its Efect On Ground Water Quality
141 Study On Fluoride Concentration In Ground Water (Hand Pumps) Of Kolar District
142 An Integrated Approach For The Sustainable Watershed Development In Mulki River
143 Assessment Of Water Quality Index For Ground Water – Case Study : Dharwad Taluka
144 Sub Surface Water ( Bore Well Water ) Quality Analysis Of Siddhaveerappa Lay-out
145 Expolaration Of Ground Water Resistivity Surveys In And Around The College Campus
146 Constructed Wetlands An Economical And Eco-friendly Wastewater Treatment Technology
147 Exploration For Ground Water By Resistivity Surveys In Tokuru And Bellairu Villages
148 Ground Water Table And Geo Hydrological Studeis Around Mittlekatte Near Davaneger City
149 Sediment And Water Quality Analysis Of Revier Shimsha A Tributary Of Cauvery River Basin

150 Hazardous Effects Of Ground Water Pollution On The Bank Of Thungabhadra River Near Harihar
151 Studies On Ground Water Quality And Exploration By Resistivity Surveys In Adopted Villages
152 Utilization Of Sugar-lill Waste Water For Biogas Generation Using Hybrid Anaerobic Reactor
153 Hydrological Status Of A Few Tanks In And Around Mysore A Study Using Gis And Remote Sensing
154 Construction Of Water Table Contourmap And Geo Hydrological Studies On Around Shbanur Village
155 Studies On Defluoridation For Water Quality Affected Kolar District, Karnataka – A Case Study
156 Electrical Resistivity Survey For Ground Water Exploration And Mangement In Mit Campus, Manipal
157 Evalution Of Ground Water Resources Assessment Of Quality And Its Impact On Dwellers And Crop Yeild
158 Developmentj Of Traditional Water Proofing Agents (Using Natural Resins) For Economy In Construction
159 Quality Of Groundwater For Drinking Purpose In The Vicinity Of An Open Drain Of Udupi Municipal Area
160 A Study On Effect Of Pollutants On Land And River Due To Discharge Of Paper Packaging Factory Waste Water
161 Evaluation Of Bottled Mineral Water For Drinking Purpose In And Around Manipal, Udupi District, Karnataka
162 Studies Of Water Quality Analysis Of Tungabhadra River Due To Disposal Of Domestic Sewage Of Harihar Town
163 Studies On Groundwater Problems In An Area Subjected To Sea Water Ingression And Seepage Into Groundwater
164 Planning And Design Of Water Supply Scheme And Proples Participation In Village Manhalli Of Bidar District
165 Investigation On Ground Water Resources And Determination Of Aquifer Parameter Around Suratkal Engg. College
166 Sediment Yield In Relation To Hydrogeomorphological Charactristics Of Venkatapur River Basin Using Gis And Remote Sensing
167 Creation Of Base Map For Water And Sewage Network For Ramanagaram Town Using Remote Sensing And Geographic Information System.

In case you find any error or duplication in the above list, just comment below. You are also free to add more topics in the list by commenting below.

Concrete Pour Card

Following is the pour card for concrete work which can be used on construction sites. Please note this is for reference only and actual concrete pour card depends on your construction site.


We at are thankful to Manjeet Singh for submitting this to us and helping all civil engineers who are working on construction projects.

You can download the Concrete Pour Card Here

Soil Lab Equipment List

1. Standard Sieves
Sieve diameter: 200 mm
Mesh size – 0.075 mm, 0.1 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm, with pan and lid.
2. Digital Sieve Shaker
3. Balance & scale
(1) 200 g/0.001 g
(2) 3000g/0.01 g;
(3) 20 kg/1 g
4. Digital Display Constant Temperature Convection Oven
5. Standard Proctor Compactor & Modified Proctor Compactor
6. 150KN Universal Electric Extruder
7. Sand Replacement Test Sets (Galvanized Steel)
8. Sand Cone Test Sets
Read More

Things Site Engineers Must Know About Reinforcement and Steel Bars

As Per Indian Guidelines Only.

Clear cover to main reinforcement in
Footings : 50 mm
Raft foundation Top : 50 mm
Raft foundation Bottom/ sides : 75 mm
Strap Beam : 50 mm
Grade Slab : 20 mm
Column : 40 mm (d>12mm) 25 mm (d= 12mm)
Shear Wall : 25 mm
Beams : 25 mm
Slabs : 15 mm or not less than diameter of the bar.
Flat Slab : 20 mm
Staircase : 15 mm
Retaining Wall on Earth : 20/ 25 mm
Water retaining structures : 20 / 30 mm
Sunshade (Chajja) : 25 mm

Hook for stirrups is 9D for one side

No. of stirrups = (clear span/Spanning) + 1

For Cantilever anchorage length for main steel is 69D


“L” for column main rod in footing is minimum of 300mm

Chairs of minimum 12 mm diameter bars should be used.

Minimum diameter of dowel bars should be 12 mm

Lap slices should not be used for bar larger than 36 mm.

In steel reinforcement binding wire required is 8 kg per MT.

Lapping is not allowed for the bars having diameters more than 36 mm.

Minimum number of bars for a square column are 4 and for circular column are 6.

Longitudinal reinforcement should not be less than 0.8% and more than 6% of gross C/S.

Weight of rod per meter length = d2/162 where d is the diameter in mm

All reinforcement shall be free from mill scales, loose rust & coats of paints, oil or any other substances.

Main bars in the slabs shall not be less than 8 mm (HYSD) or 10 mm (Plain bars) and the distributors not less than 8 mm and not more than 1/8 of slab thickness.


In case of spacing of bars
Provide the diameter of the bar, if the diameter of the bar are equal.
Provide the diameter of the larger bar, if the diameter are unequal.
5mm more than the nominal maximum size of the coarse aggregate.

Things Site Engineers Must Know

Check out the Unit Weights and Conversion which will be required on construction site here

We at are thankful to Er Vikrant for submitting this construction site check list which is of great use to all civil engineers.

Things Site Engineers Must Know

Minimum thickness of slab is 125 mm.

Water absorption should not be more than 15 %.

Dimension tolerance for cubes + – 2 mm.

Compressive strength of Bricks is 3.5 N /mm2

Maximum Free fall of concrete allowed is 1.50 m.


In soil filling as per IS code for every 100 sqm 3 sample for core cutting test should be taken.

Electrical conduits shall not run in column

Earth work excavation for basement above 3 m should be stepped form

Any back filling shall be compacted 95% of dry density at the optimum moisture content and in layers not more than 200mm for filling above structure and 300 mm for no structure

F soling is specified the soling stones shall be laid at 45° to 60° inclination (and not vertical) with interstices filled with sand or moorum.

A set of cube tests shall be carried out for each 30 cum of concrete / each levels of casting / each batch of cement.

Water cement ratio for different grades of concrete shall not exceed 0.45 for M20 and above and 0.50 For M10 / M15 contractor

For concrete grades M20 and above approved admixture shall be used as per mix design requirements.

Cement shall be stored in dry places on a raised platform about 200mm above floor level and 300mm away from walls. Bags to be stacked not more than 10 bags high in such a manner that it is adequately protected from moisture and contamination.


Samples from fresh concrete shall be taken and at least a set of 6 cubes of 150mm shall be prepared and
cured. 3 Cubes each at 7 days and 28 days shall be tested for compressive strength. The test results
should be submitted to engineer for approval. If results are unsatisfactory necessary action/rectification/remedial measures has to be exercised.

Water used for both mixing and curing shall be clean and free from injurious amounts of oils, acids, alkalies, salts, sugar and organic materials or other substances that may be deleterious to concrete or steel. The ph shall be generally between 6 and 8.

Cement shall be tested for its setting.
1. The initial setting time shall not be less than 30 minutes.
2. The final setting time shall not be more than 10 hours.

Slump IS 456
Lightly reinforced 25 – 75 mm
Heavily reinforced 75 – 100 mm
Trench fill (insitu & Tremie) 100 – 150 mm (For Tremie no need of vibrator)

Curing Days Required
Super Sulphate cement : 7 days
Ordinary Portland cement OPC : 10 days
Minerals and Admixture added cement : 14 days


Cube Samples
1 – 5 M3 : 1 No.
6 – 15 M3 : 2 No’s
16 – 30 M3 : 3 No’s
31 – 50 M3 : 4 No’s
Above 50 M3 : 4 + 1 No of addition sample for each 50 M3.

Things Site Engineers Must Know About Reinforcement and Steel Bars

Check out the Unit Weights and Conversion which will be required on construction site here

We at are thankful to Er Vikrant for submitting this construction site check list which is of great use to all civil engineers.

What are the Tolerance Limits on Construction Site?

Accuracy of measuring equipment in batching plant.
Cement : + – 2%
Aggregate : + – 3%
Admixture : + – 3%
Water : + – 3%
Mixing time : 2 minutes for one mixing. (Mixing which is being done on site)

Tolerance in Form work
In C/S for columns & Beams deviation is = + 12mm more (or) – 6mm less in size
In footing plan = + 50 mm more (or) – 12 mm less size
In depth = + – 0.05 D (specified thickness).


Tolerance in Reinforcement
For effective depth D < = 200mm = +- 10mm For effective depth D > 200mm = +- 15mm
For Cover to reinforcement = + 10mm
Maximum freefall of concrete = 1.50 m height.

Tolerance on diameter in length
0-25mm = +- 0.5 %
25-35mm = +- 0.6 %
35-50mm = +- 0.8 %

Tolerance on weight per metre
0-10mm = +- 7%
10-16mm = +- 5%
16 and above = +- 3%


Tolerance for cutting Length
A) When the specified length is not given = + 75mm (or) – 25 mm
B) When the minimum length is specified = + 50 mm (or) – 0 mm

We are thankful to Er. Vikrant for submitting this to us.

Unit Weight of Materials Used at Construction Site

Following table shows unit weight of materials used at construction site. Please note this is for reference purpose only and may vary from place and type of material.


We are thankful to Engineer Ravi Verma for submitting this very useful information to us. If you also have any other formula and shortcuts which can be used on construction site do submit it to us using the submit form here




Weight in(KG/M³)

Approx Weight at Site in




1 Cement 1440 50 Bag
2 Steel 7850 d²/162 d -dia in mm
3 Sand-
Dry 1600 50 to 55 farma 1 farma=1.25cft
River 1840 57 to 63 farma 1 farma=1.25cft
4 Stone(basalt) 2850 to 2960 48 to 52 farma metal 12mm to 20mm
5 Water 1000 1 liter
6 PCC 2240 8.24 to 8.5 Cube mould cube mould size=15x15x15cm
7 RCC 2% Steel 2420
8 Bricks 1600 to 1920 1.9 to 2 no 9x4x2 3/4″
4.8 to 4.9 no 9x6x3 3/4”
9 Brick Masonry 1920
10 Soil(damp) 1760 50 to 55 cft Black cotton
11 Cement concrete block(solid) 1800 18 to 20 cft 30x15x20 cm
10 to 11 no 30x10x20 cm
12 Cement Mortar 2080 57 to 62 cft
13 Lime Mortar 1760 48 to 52 cft
14 Lime 640 30 bag
15 Glass 2530 0.9 to 0.95 sft 4mm tk plain
16 Teak Wood 670 to 830 18 to 20 cft
17 Sal Wood 990 22 to 24 cft
18 Marble mosaic tile 2.8 to 3.2 no 25x25x22mm
4.8 to 5.2 no 30x30x25mm
19 Chequered tile 2.5 to 2.8 no 25x25x22mm
20 Glazed tile15x15cm 0.20 to 0.25 no 5mm tk
21 Marble Stone 2620 5.1 sft 3/4″tk
22 Granite Stone 2460-2800 5.35 sft 3/4″tk
23 Coddappa 2720 6.4 sft 1 1/4″tk
24 A.C.sheet corrugated 16 1.2 sft
25 Bitumen 1040 220 Drum 200liter drum
26 Window frame (simple design) 1.9 to2.1 sft
27 Door Frame
a)3’00×7’0 25 to 27 no section 4″x2 1/2″
b)2’6″x7’0 24 to 26 no section 4″x2 1/2″

How To Write a Project Report?

All engineers need to submit at least one Project Report in four years of engineering. Usually it is done during a training semester but in many prestigious colleges and universities, students are asked to prepare project reports in almost every semester. Writing a report is considered to be a very difficult task, if the student is doing it for the first time. But once you have done it, it becomes an extremely easy and interesting job. We at have received many requests to prepare a format for writing an effective project report for engineering students be it BE, B Tech, M Tech or PHD. First of all you need to understand different levels of Project Reports. If two students one of B Tech and one of M Tech will have to write on same topic, then M Tech students need to do a much more thorough research before preparing a Project Report. But the basic structure remains the same.

Here is the overview of How to write an effective Project Report

1) Title Page
The first page of your report should cover the title of your project along with your name, your guide’s name and your institute’s name along with a line saying “IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY (B.TECH) IN CIVIL ENGINEERING”, (change CIVIL to your engineering branch). Also note if its just a regular report and not a training report you need not write this statement. This is only used when you are submitting your report after a training semester.Here is a sample of Title Page
Read More

Format of a Training Completion Certificate

This post by Er Rohit Verma is to to help all other budding civil engineering students about the format of a training completion certificate.

Since he dint know the format earlier, he thought about sharing it so that others who are not aware of what is the format of a training certificate can get help out of this.


Hope it helps you,note that this Certificate must be written on a company’s letter head ,and signed by a reputed officer of the firm


This is to certify that ________________ [ your name], pursuing his B.Tech, 3rd/4th year [depending on when you go for training] has successfully completed summer internship at________________________ [ Project Location] from _____________ to ____________ [ date of your internship/training]

We found him /her sincere, hardworking, technically sound and result oriented. He worked well as part of a team during his/her tenure. We take this opportunity to thank him and wish him all the best for her future.

Office Stamp:

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