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Things Site Engineers Must Know About Reinforcement and Steel Bars

As Per Indian Guidelines Only.

Clear cover to main reinforcement in
Footings : 50 mm
Raft foundation Top : 50 mm
Raft foundation Bottom/ sides : 75 mm
Strap Beam : 50 mm
Grade Slab : 20 mm
Column : 40 mm (d>12mm) 25 mm (d= 12mm)
Shear Wall : 25 mm
Beams : 25 mm
Slabs : 15 mm or not less than diameter of the bar.
Flat Slab : 20 mm
Staircase : 15 mm
Retaining Wall on Earth : 20/ 25 mm
Water retaining structures : 20 / 30 mm
Sunshade (Chajja) : 25 mm

Hook for stirrups is 9D for one side

No. of stirrups = (clear span/Spanning) + 1

For Cantilever anchorage length for main steel is 69D


ā€œLā€ for column main rod in footing is minimum of 300mm

Chairs of minimum 12 mm diameter bars should be used.

Minimum diameter of dowel bars should be 12 mm

Lap slices should not be used for bar larger than 36 mm.

In steel reinforcement binding wire required is 8 kg per MT.

Lapping is not allowed for the bars having diameters more than 36 mm.

Minimum number of bars for a square column are 4 and for circular column are 6.

Longitudinal reinforcement should not be less than 0.8% and more than 6% of gross C/S.

Weight of rod per meter length = d2/162 where d is the diameter in mm

All reinforcement shall be free from mill scales, loose rust & coats of paints, oil or any other substances.

Main bars in the slabs shall not be less than 8 mm (HYSD) or 10 mm (Plain bars) and the distributors not less than 8 mm and not more than 1/8 of slab thickness.


In case of spacing of bars
Provide the diameter of the bar, if the diameter of the bar are equal.
Provide the diameter of the larger bar, if the diameter are unequal.
5mm more than the nominal maximum size of the coarse aggregate.

Things Site Engineers Must Know

Check out the Unit Weights and Conversion which will be required on construction site here

We at are thankful to Er Vikrant for submitting this construction site check list which is of great use to all civil engineers.

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Kanwarjot Singh

Kanwarjot Singh is the founder of Civil Engineering Portal, a leading civil engineering website which has been awarded as the best online publication by CIDC. He did his BE civil from Thapar University, Patiala and has been working on this website with his team of Civil Engineers.

If you have a query, you can ask a question here.

90 comments on "Things Site Engineers Must Know About Reinforcement and Steel Bars"

bhavani rao says:

Being a fresher i am learning a lot from this site

martin manish says:

after learn it.i do everything very smoothly

Nasir Khan says:

I m not a engineer, i have little practical knowledge, but this site help me lot for my work and i m grateful for them

ginoy george says:

i’m a civil engg student ,cmpleting civil engg diplma, i am thankful to dis site for make me a gud enggnr

Faruku Usman says:

How bending moment and shear forces can resist structural design.

preethi says:

really nice site..visited for the 1st tim and learned a lot…

shanthibhushan says:

i have question for u guys. why do we use only round steel bar why can n’t we use rectangular bar ????


due to better workability

zavid says:

i am grateful to you


why we use main bar in shorter span & distributor bar in longer span


Really very fabulous site

Mozamil says:

why for slab the minimum diameter bar are 10? i think it shall be larger dia.

Michael Angelo Malicsi Retener says:

that is why you have the word minimum. it can be larger than 10mm but cannot be smaller. but it still depends on the load it is designed to carry

karwan says:

At foundation.what is different between steel bars short direction and steel bars long direction.?

bashir ahmad says:

how to find area of steel in rectangular R CC beam

mohammed shahnawaz says:

what r the types of reinforcement used in india, its composition

Ashique says:

One of our engineer is designed a foundation Size of 180x180x50cm and the steels are 13 nos of 14mm dia bars/mtr both ways at bottom and 13 nos of 12mm bars/mtr at top..
actually i need to know the maximum numbers of bars in one meter.
Note it is a cold store structure of height 9.00mtr.

Maxwell Fosu Buabeng says:

Am very much grateful to have this important information…pls forward more civil working details to my mail.yours sincerely

mallikarjun patil says:

Its a really helpfull



siddique says:

my name is siddiq.this site is very useful civil engineers

ravindra says:

how to calculate bbs of cloumn

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