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# Student Corner

Different tests for rebar

By
Sourav Dutta
Manager-Civil

Brand embossing
On rebar pieces, different items are encrypted in the following manner:

Here, X = Dia of rebar in mm, eg, 20
ABCD = Brand of rebar, eg, TATA TISCON / SAIL / JSPL etc
Y = Yield stress of rebar, eg, 500 indicates Fe500 with yield stress=500 Mpa

Myths on Beam construction – Challenge to overcome

By
Sourav Dutta
Manager-Civil

There are a number of ways in which the superstructure can be built. In areas where average to good quality bricks are available, the walls of houses for two to three storeyed constructions can be built out of bricks with the slabs, lintels, chajja etc. in reinforced concrete. Such construction is supported entirely on load bearing brick walls (Fig 1), foundation of which ultimately transfers the building load to underneath soil.

Fig 1: Load Bearing Construction on brick

Fig 2: RCC framed construction

Salient features of Foundation Construction

By
Sourav Dutta
Manager-Civil

What is Foundation?

Any structure can be divided into 2 parts:
1. Superstructure: Part of structure above Ground level (GL)
2. Substructure/ Foundation: Part of structure below GL

Components of foundation:
Typically there are 3 components of foundation: (i) Footing, (ii) Column, (iii) Tie beam (refer to picture below)

What is a footing?
Footing is that part of substructure that ultimately transfers the load (dead/live/wind/seismic) to the supporting soil in such a way that the safe load bearing capacity of soil is not exceeded (refer to table 1 for estimation of the safe load bearing capacity of the soil). Footing is a structure constructed in brick work masonry or RCC (refer to figure 1) under the base of a wall or RCC column for distributing the load over a large area.

Proper Slab Construction Concepts – A Challenge to overcome

By
Sourav Dutta
Manager-Civil

What is slab?
A RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete) slab is the most common structural element of any type of building. Horizontal slabs, typically between 4 and 20 inches (100 and 500 millimeters) thick, are most often used to construct floors and ceilings.Here discussion on “flat slab” has not been considered.

Typical loads to be considered for slab design
(i) Dead load: Any permanent load acting on the slab e.g. self-weight of slab, weight of floor finish & plaster

(ii) Live Load: Any non-permanent or moving load e.g. weight of occupants, furniture, and partitionon the slab

Note: Earthquake and Wind loads are not considered in the design of slabs.

Wrong Myths On Column Construction – A Challenge To Overcome

By
Sourav Dutta
Manager-Civil

Introduction
There are a number of ways in which the superstructure can be built. In areas where average to good quality bricks are available, the walls of houses for two to three storeyed constructions can be built out of bricks with the slabs, lintels, chajja etc. in reinforced concrete. Such construction is termed as load bearing construction (Fig 1). This is essentially because the entire load coming from the slabs, beams, walls etc is transmitted to the foundation through the brick walls.

How to Assess the Quality of Fine Aggregate at Site?

1. Introduction
There are lots of methods and test, that we can use for assessing the quality of construction sand or Common sand. But when it comes to the case of site practices, the methods like bulk density, bulkage, specific gravity test etc, become difficult or up to an extent impossible. There comes the importance of Sieve test on fine aggregates.

Sieve testing is one of the very fast methods of checking the quality of construction sand. Even though, the result of sieve test cannot be considered as the final result to ensure the quality of sand.

Simple Field Testing of Materials

By
KAUSHAL KISHORE
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

Most of our construction sites do not have field-testing laboratory. In this paper simple test methods of construction materials are described which could be performed without any machine or special equipments.

1. TEST FOR ORGANIC IMPURITIES IN FINE AGGREGATE
The aggregate must be checked for organic impurities such as decayed vegetations, humus, and coal dust, etc. Colour test is a reliable indicator of the presence of harmful organic matter in aggregates except in areas where there are deposits of lignite.

Procedure:
a) Fill a 350 ml clear glass medicine bottle upto 75 ml mark with a 3% solution of caustic soda or sodium hydroxide.

List of Projects Related to Earthquake Engineering

Here are some topics which you can use for your projects if you have chosen Seismic or Earthquake Engineering. You are free to add more project topics via comment section below.

1 Seismic Retrofitting Of Buildings
2 Seismic Behavior Analysis Of Bridges
3 Failure Of Foundation Due To Earthquake
5 Innovations In Earthquake Proof Structures
6 Seismic Behavior & Design Of RC Shear Walls
7 Earthquake & Earthquake Resistant Techniques
8 The Seismic Controlling Methods And Devices
9 Role Of Building Codes In Seismic Assessment.
10 Analysis For Seismic Retrofitting Of Buildings
11 Energy Dissipation Devices For Seismic Design.
12 Seismic Analysis and Up-gradation Of Structures
13 Earthquake Resistant Design and its Importance.
14 Steel Bracing Of RC Frames For Seismic Retrofitting
15 Recent Advances In Seismic Retrofitting Of RC Frames.
16 Calculation Of Earthquake – Actions On Building Structures
17 Evaluation Of Earthquake Affected Structure Using NDT WRT.
18 Earthquake Vibration Control Using Modified Frame-shear Wall
19 Seismic Response Of RC Frame Building With First Soft Storey
20 Seismic Design Force For Single-span Slab-girder Skewed Bridges

21 Development Length Requirements In Seismic Force-resisting Members
22 Response Spectrum Modelling For Regions Lacking Earthquake Records
23 Seismic Retrofitting Of RC Buildings Using Traditional Techniques.
24 An Investigation Of Joints Behavior In Seismic Response Of Arch Dams
25 Seismic Resistance Verification Of Confined Masonry Using Shock Table Studies
26 Earthquake Resistant Construction Of R.C.C Building And Construction Practices
27 Brick Masonry Building Model With Seismic Bands Under The Action Of Base Motion
28 Aspects Of Earthquake Disaster Mitigation Special References To Non Engineered Construction
29 An Investigation Of Design Issues related to Seismic Performance Of Pile-to-pile Cap Connections
30 Studies On Strength And Behavior Of Composite Tubes For Earthquake Resistant Industrial Structures
31 Studies On Sleeved Composite Columns Confined With Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer(gfrp) For Seismic Resistance
32 Comparative Strength Analysis Of Rubbers And Cement And Mortar-encased Steel Composite Columns For Seismic Resistance
33 Shear Reinforcement At Slab-column Connections Of Slabs That Are Not Part Of The Lateral-force-resisting System Of A Building In A High Seismic Design Category

If you have any suggestion or feedback do comment below. Help other engineers by suggesting more engineering topics for presentations and reports below. In case you find any error or duplication in the above list, just comment below.

List of Projects Related to Soil Engineering

Following are few topics which can be used for your Project Works. You can choose the project from the list below depending on your field of interest and your project duration.

1 Lime -Flyash – Soil Blocks
2 Plastic As Soil Stabilizer
3 Study on Soil-cement Blocks?
4 Bricks From Black Cotton Soil
5 Study On Stablised Soil Blocks
6 Definition Of Soil Liquefaction
7 Use Of Plastic As Soil Stabilizer
8 Strength Properties Of Bhalki Soil
9 Burnt Bricks From Black Cotton Soil
10 Plysoil Reinforced With Geotextiles
11 Geojute Febrics – As Soil Stabiliser
12 Flyash -Cement Stabilized Soil Blocks
13 Studies On Soil Cement Block Mansonry
14 Engineering Aspects Of Reinforced Soil
15 Soil Distribution And Engineering Problems
16 Soil Stabilised Pressed Blocks Using Red Soil
17 Stabilization And Compaction Of Soil: Fly Ash
18 A New Method To Determine Plastic Limit Of Soil
19 Stabilisation Of Soil With Lime For Rural Roads
20 Characteristic Study Of Bc Soil Of Budni Village
21 Strength Of Reinforced Soil Beams Under Flexture
22 Atudy Of Local Soils For Ammed Earth Construction
23 Effect Of Chrome Tanning Effluent On Cohesive Soils
24 Stabilization Of Soft Soils Using Industrial Wastes
25 Study Of Distressed Buildings On Black Cotton Soils
26 Study the Pile-soil relation of a construction site
27 The Role Of Soils In Purifying Wastewater Effluents
28 Soil Stabilization With Rice Husk Ash And Lime Sludge
29 Studies On Black Cotton Soil Mixed Copper Mines Waste
30 Causes of Soil Liquefaction and how can we prevent it?

31 Some Experimental Studies On Coir Fibre Reinforced Soil
32 Soil Mechanics & Geotechnical Engineering Soil Mechanics
33 Effect Of Blast Furnace Sl*g On Soil-cement Stabilization
34 Improvement Of Bearing Capacity Of Sandy Soil By Grouting
35 Improvement Of Bearing Capacity Of Sandy Soils By Grouting
36 Lime Stablised Pressed Soil Blocks Using Black Cotton Soil
37 Documents Applicable To Non-structural, Soil-supported Slabs
38 Role Of Geo Synthetic In The Improvement Of Strength Of Soil
39 Study On Infiltration Rate On Different Soils Of Mysore City
40 For Soil Bricks Subjected To Accelerated Weathering Condition
41 Lime Cement Stabalized And Compacted Black Cotton Soil Blocks
42 Some Studies On Lime Stabilised Red Earth Soil Block Masonary
43 Impact Of Industrial Solid Wastes On Soil And Sub-surface Water
44 Some Studies On Cement Stabilised Red Earth Soil Blocks Masonry
45 Strength Analysis Of Cement Stabilised Soil Blocks A Case Study
46 How important is Soil Stabilization before starting any project?
47 Labaraotaory Studies On Geotextiles Reinforced Soil For Pavements
48 Laboratory Study Of Migration Of Contaminants Through Soil Column
49 Studies On Quality Of Soil And Ground Water In An Adapted Village
50 Behaviour Of Lateral Resistance Of Flexible Piles In Layered Soils
51 Black Cotton Soil Bricks With Lime Sand And Pozzolana As Stabaliser
52 Strength Characteristics Of Subgrade Soils Reinforced With Geogrids
53 Development Of B.C Soil Stabilised Building Blocks Using Lime Flyash
54 Soil-industrial Effluent Interaction And Their Engineering Behaviour
55 Stabilisation Of Expansive Black Cotton Soil – An Experimental Approach
56 Development Of B.C Soil Stabilised Building Blocks Using Lime And Flyash
57 Infilitration Studies In Differnent Soil Of River Basins Of D. K District
58 Compressive Strength Characteristics Of Stacked Stabilised Soil Cement Blocks
59 Preliminary Investigations On Red Soil Cement Stabilised Coconut Shell Blocks
60 Stabilisation Of Black Cotton Soil Using Bioenzymes For Pavement Construction

61 Some Studies On Bamboo Reinforced Stabilised Red Soil Beam Prisms For Flexture
62 A Project Report On Effect Of Leachate On Index And Strength Properties Of The Soil
63 Investigation Of Strength Properties Of Black Cotton Soil Stabilised With Fly Ash And Geo Reinforcement
64 Studies On The Strength Of Stabilised Mud Block Masonry And Burnt Brick Masonry Using Cement Soil Quarry Dust Mortar
65 Investigation And Characterization Of The Solid Waste Disposal Sites And Its Impact On Soil And Water In The Bagalkot District
66 Evaluation Of Physio-chemical And Biological Characteristics Of Reservoir Water Fed By Pollutted River And Its Effect On Soil Properties And Nutrients In Crops

In case you find any error or duplication in the above list, just comment below. You are also free to add more topics in the list by commenting below.

List of Projects Related to Transportation Highway and Bridges

Following are few topics which can be used for your Project Works. You can choose the project from the list below depending on your field of interest and your project duration.

2 Automated Highway Systems
3 Traffic Monitoring System
4 Bridge Bearings & Stability
5 Highway & Their Maintenance
6 What are Geotech pavements
7 Intelligent Transport System
8 Development Of Robotic Bridge
9 Geographic Information System
10 Geotextile & Their Application
11 Study on Self Stabilizing Track
12 Research on Stress Ribbon Bridges
13 Highway Failure & Their Maintenance
14 Pavement Design By Using Geotextile
15 Urban Transport Plaling In Amravati
17 Pavement Surface Unevennes Evalution
18 Geosynthetics In Construction Of Roads
19 Integral Bridges An Innovative Concept
20 Pedestrian Bridge Over College Avenue.
21 Advancement In Geotechnical Engg. With Geo
22 Report On Urban Transport Planning Project
23 Use Of Discrete Fiber In Road Construction
24 Hydraulic & Hydrological Impacts On Bridges
25 Polymer Composites In Bridge Rehabilitation
26 Effect Of Ageing In Various Bituminous Mixes
27 Mass Transit System – The necessity of today
28 Stabilization Of Subgrade Using Geosynthetics
29 Bridge Strengthening Advanced Composite System
30 Computer-aided Limit States Analysis Of Bridge
31 Walkway, Or A Small Car Bridge Over The River.

32 Geographical Information System & Remote Sensing
33 Construction Challenges For Bridges In Hilly Area
34 Gc Antistripping Adhesive For Bituminous Pavement
35 Development Of A Robotic Bridge Maintenance System
36 An Innovation For Various Geotechnical Applications
37 Study the socio economic impact of a Highway Failure
38 Traffic Analysis And Pavement Evaluation Along Nh-17
39 Time And Motion Study On Road Construction Techniques
40 Evaluation Of Highway Materials And Design Performance
41 Load Rating Of Impaired Bridges Using A Dynamic Method
42 Transportation – The evergrowing civil engineering need
43 Pavement Stabilization Using Iron Ore Waste Along N.H-17
44 Study Of Transportation Needs In Rural And Semi-urban Areas
45 Mix Design For Pavement Overlays For Sustainable Development
46 Traffic Management Studies In Ramanagaram Roads And Highways
47 Discuss Highway Safety Methods to be adopted by Civil Engineers
48 Pavement Evaluation And Application Of Geotextiles In Pavements
49 Role Of Mems In Elevating Bridges To A Level Of “Smart Bridges”
50 Laboratory Studies On Geofibres As Reinforcement In Road Pavement
51 Rehabilitation Of Bridges & Buildings – Using Guniting Techniques
52 Performance Studies On California Bearing Ratio Valus Using Geofabrics
53 Highway & Transportation Engineering Highways & Transportation Engineering
54 Analysis Of Dynamic Cone Penetration (Dcp) Test Results For Pavement Design
55 Application Of Geotextile To Improve The C B R Value Of Subgrade In Rural Areas
56 Proximity Of Transportation Network Of Shimoga City Using Remote Sensing And Gis
57 Study Of Transportation System Analysis And Temporal Pattern Recongnition Case Studies
58 Widening And Strengthening Of Existing State Highway;case Problem Of Package M4(kship)
59 A Laboratory Study On The Utilisation Of Red Muds In Pavements And As Building Material