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Student Corner

Soil Lab Equipment List

1. Standard Sieves
Sieve diameter: 200 mm
Mesh size – 0.075 mm, 0.1 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm, with pan and lid.
2. Digital Sieve Shaker
3. Balance & scale
(1) 200 g/0.001 g
(2) 3000g/0.01 g;
(3) 20 kg/1 g
4. Digital Display Constant Temperature Convection Oven
5. Standard Proctor Compactor & Modified Proctor Compactor
6. 150KN Universal Electric Extruder
7. Sand Replacement Test Sets (Galvanized Steel)
8. Sand Cone Test Sets
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Things Site Engineers Must Know About Reinforcement and Steel Bars

As Per Indian Guidelines Only.

Clear cover to main reinforcement in
Footings : 50 mm
Raft foundation Top : 50 mm
Raft foundation Bottom/ sides : 75 mm
Strap Beam : 50 mm
Grade Slab : 20 mm
Column : 40 mm (d>12mm) 25 mm (d= 12mm)
Shear Wall : 25 mm
Beams : 25 mm
Slabs : 15 mm or not less than diameter of the bar.
Flat Slab : 20 mm
Staircase : 15 mm
Retaining Wall on Earth : 20/ 25 mm
Water retaining structures : 20 / 30 mm
Sunshade (Chajja) : 25 mm

Hook for stirrups is 9D for one side

No. of stirrups = (clear span/Spanning) + 1

For Cantilever anchorage length for main steel is 69D


“L” for column main rod in footing is minimum of 300mm

Chairs of minimum 12 mm diameter bars should be used.

Minimum diameter of dowel bars should be 12 mm

Lap slices should not be used for bar larger than 36 mm.

In steel reinforcement binding wire required is 8 kg per MT.

Lapping is not allowed for the bars having diameters more than 36 mm.

Minimum number of bars for a square column are 4 and for circular column are 6.

Longitudinal reinforcement should not be less than 0.8% and more than 6% of gross C/S.

Weight of rod per meter length = d2/162 where d is the diameter in mm

All reinforcement shall be free from mill scales, loose rust & coats of paints, oil or any other substances.

Main bars in the slabs shall not be less than 8 mm (HYSD) or 10 mm (Plain bars) and the distributors not less than 8 mm and not more than 1/8 of slab thickness.


In case of spacing of bars
Provide the diameter of the bar, if the diameter of the bar are equal.
Provide the diameter of the larger bar, if the diameter are unequal.
5mm more than the nominal maximum size of the coarse aggregate.

Things Site Engineers Must Know

Check out the Unit Weights and Conversion which will be required on construction site here

We at are thankful to Er Vikrant for submitting this construction site check list which is of great use to all civil engineers.

Things Site Engineers Must Know

Minimum thickness of slab is 125 mm.

Water absorption should not be more than 15 %.

Dimension tolerance for cubes + – 2 mm.

Compressive strength of Bricks is 3.5 N /mm2

Maximum Free fall of concrete allowed is 1.50 m.


In soil filling as per IS code for every 100 sqm 3 sample for core cutting test should be taken.

Electrical conduits shall not run in column

Earth work excavation for basement above 3 m should be stepped form

Any back filling shall be compacted 95% of dry density at the optimum moisture content and in layers not more than 200mm for filling above structure and 300 mm for no structure

F soling is specified the soling stones shall be laid at 45° to 60° inclination (and not vertical) with interstices filled with sand or moorum.

A set of cube tests shall be carried out for each 30 cum of concrete / each levels of casting / each batch of cement.

Water cement ratio for different grades of concrete shall not exceed 0.45 for M20 and above and 0.50 For M10 / M15 contractor

For concrete grades M20 and above approved admixture shall be used as per mix design requirements.

Cement shall be stored in dry places on a raised platform about 200mm above floor level and 300mm away from walls. Bags to be stacked not more than 10 bags high in such a manner that it is adequately protected from moisture and contamination.


Samples from fresh concrete shall be taken and at least a set of 6 cubes of 150mm shall be prepared and
cured. 3 Cubes each at 7 days and 28 days shall be tested for compressive strength. The test results
should be submitted to engineer for approval. If results are unsatisfactory necessary action/rectification/remedial measures has to be exercised.

Water used for both mixing and curing shall be clean and free from injurious amounts of oils, acids, alkalies, salts, sugar and organic materials or other substances that may be deleterious to concrete or steel. The ph shall be generally between 6 and 8.

Cement shall be tested for its setting.
1. The initial setting time shall not be less than 30 minutes.
2. The final setting time shall not be more than 10 hours.

Slump IS 456
Lightly reinforced 25 – 75 mm
Heavily reinforced 75 – 100 mm
Trench fill (insitu & Tremie) 100 – 150 mm (For Tremie no need of vibrator)

Curing Days Required
Super Sulphate cement : 7 days
Ordinary Portland cement OPC : 10 days
Minerals and Admixture added cement : 14 days


Cube Samples
1 – 5 M3 : 1 No.
6 – 15 M3 : 2 No’s
16 – 30 M3 : 3 No’s
31 – 50 M3 : 4 No’s
Above 50 M3 : 4 + 1 No of addition sample for each 50 M3.

Things Site Engineers Must Know About Reinforcement and Steel Bars

Check out the Unit Weights and Conversion which will be required on construction site here

We at are thankful to Er Vikrant for submitting this construction site check list which is of great use to all civil engineers.

What are the Tolerance Limits on Construction Site?

Accuracy of measuring equipment in batching plant.
Cement : + – 2%
Aggregate : + – 3%
Admixture : + – 3%
Water : + – 3%
Mixing time : 2 minutes for one mixing. (Mixing which is being done on site)

Tolerance in Form work
In C/S for columns & Beams deviation is = + 12mm more (or) – 6mm less in size
In footing plan = + 50 mm more (or) – 12 mm less size
In depth = + – 0.05 D (specified thickness).


Tolerance in Reinforcement
For effective depth D < = 200mm = +- 10mm For effective depth D > 200mm = +- 15mm
For Cover to reinforcement = + 10mm
Maximum freefall of concrete = 1.50 m height.

Tolerance on diameter in length
0-25mm = +- 0.5 %
25-35mm = +- 0.6 %
35-50mm = +- 0.8 %

Tolerance on weight per metre
0-10mm = +- 7%
10-16mm = +- 5%
16 and above = +- 3%


Tolerance for cutting Length
A) When the specified length is not given = + 75mm (or) – 25 mm
B) When the minimum length is specified = + 50 mm (or) – 0 mm

We are thankful to Er. Vikrant for submitting this to us.

Unit Weight of Materials Used at Construction Site

Following table shows unit weight of materials used at construction site. Please note this is for reference purpose only and may vary from place and type of material.


We are thankful to Engineer Ravi Verma for submitting this very useful information to us. If you also have any other formula and shortcuts which can be used on construction site do submit it to us using the submit form here




Weight in(KG/M³)

Approx Weight at Site in




1 Cement 1440 50 Bag
2 Steel 7850 d²/162 d -dia in mm
3 Sand-
Dry 1600 50 to 55 farma 1 farma=1.25cft
River 1840 57 to 63 farma 1 farma=1.25cft
4 Stone(basalt) 2850 to 2960 48 to 52 farma metal 12mm to 20mm
5 Water 1000 1 liter
6 PCC 2240 8.24 to 8.5 Cube mould cube mould size=15x15x15cm
7 RCC 2% Steel 2420
8 Bricks 1600 to 1920 1.9 to 2 no 9x4x2 3/4″
4.8 to 4.9 no 9x6x3 3/4”
9 Brick Masonry 1920
10 Soil(damp) 1760 50 to 55 cft Black cotton
11 Cement concrete block(solid) 1800 18 to 20 cft 30x15x20 cm
10 to 11 no 30x10x20 cm
12 Cement Mortar 2080 57 to 62 cft
13 Lime Mortar 1760 48 to 52 cft
14 Lime 640 30 bag
15 Glass 2530 0.9 to 0.95 sft 4mm tk plain
16 Teak Wood 670 to 830 18 to 20 cft
17 Sal Wood 990 22 to 24 cft
18 Marble mosaic tile 2.8 to 3.2 no 25x25x22mm
4.8 to 5.2 no 30x30x25mm
19 Chequered tile 2.5 to 2.8 no 25x25x22mm
20 Glazed tile15x15cm 0.20 to 0.25 no 5mm tk
21 Marble Stone 2620 5.1 sft 3/4″tk
22 Granite Stone 2460-2800 5.35 sft 3/4″tk
23 Coddappa 2720 6.4 sft 1 1/4″tk
24 A.C.sheet corrugated 16 1.2 sft
25 Bitumen 1040 220 Drum 200liter drum
26 Window frame (simple design) 1.9 to2.1 sft
27 Door Frame
a)3’00×7’0 25 to 27 no section 4″x2 1/2″
b)2’6″x7’0 24 to 26 no section 4″x2 1/2″

How To Write a Project Report?

All engineers need to submit at least one Project Report in four years of engineering. Usually it is done during a training semester but in many prestigious colleges and universities, students are asked to prepare project reports in almost every semester. Writing a report is considered to be a very difficult task, if the student is doing it for the first time. But once you have done it, it becomes an extremely easy and interesting job. We at have received many requests to prepare a format for writing an effective project report for engineering students be it BE, B Tech, M Tech or PHD. First of all you need to understand different levels of Project Reports. If two students one of B Tech and one of M Tech will have to write on same topic, then M Tech students need to do a much more thorough research before preparing a Project Report. But the basic structure remains the same.

Here is the overview of How to write an effective Project Report

1) Title Page
The first page of your report should cover the title of your project along with your name, your guide’s name and your institute’s name along with a line saying “IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY (B.TECH) IN CIVIL ENGINEERING”, (change CIVIL to your engineering branch). Also note if its just a regular report and not a training report you need not write this statement. This is only used when you are submitting your report after a training semester.Here is a sample of Title Page
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Format of a Training Completion Certificate

This post by Er Rohit Verma is to to help all other budding civil engineering students about the format of a training completion certificate.

Since he dint know the format earlier, he thought about sharing it so that others who are not aware of what is the format of a training certificate can get help out of this.


Hope it helps you,note that this Certificate must be written on a company’s letter head ,and signed by a reputed officer of the firm


This is to certify that ________________ [ your name], pursuing his B.Tech, 3rd/4th year [depending on when you go for training] has successfully completed summer internship at________________________ [ Project Location] from _____________ to ____________ [ date of your internship/training]

We found him /her sincere, hardworking, technically sound and result oriented. He worked well as part of a team during his/her tenure. We take this opportunity to thank him and wish him all the best for her future.

Office Stamp:

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