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Student Corner

What are various Types of Cement?

Cement is a construction material which is used as a binder. It binds other construction material aggregate and sand together. Cement exhibits different properties if we change the chemical composition.  Earlier the different types of cement was found by only varying the relative proportion of the oxide composition.As time advances, new materials like additives to the clinker at the time of grinding, use of new raw materials resulted in production of new variety of cement.The various types of cements as per Indian Standards are-


Successful Project Management in the Construction Industry Definition & Characteristic Activities

Sreenivasa Hassan Jayaram
CEO & Founder, Venkatarjuna Construction & Consulting, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Definition: Project Management is the creation and scientific discipline of changing over a thought into outcome effectively and professionally.

Project Management gives the clear forecast of Planning, Execution and Communication.

Characteristic Project Management Activities:

  • Approval
  • Plan and schedule
  • Distribution of responsibility
  • Direct to accomplishments
  • Know expectations
  • Resolve Issues
  • Track Project
  • Communicate to stakeholders


Bar Bending Schedule


Bar bending schedule is a means to calculate the exact quantity of reinforcements required in a structure. It is helpful for any concrete work to know exact amount of cement, aggregate or sand required for a structure. It is referred to as BBS in short form. It involves calculating development length, diameter of bars to be used, stirrups, cutting length, crank length, and many more. It is a process of cutting and bending reinforcement bars into desired shape and size as per structural drawing. These drawings are handed by structural engineers for various structural elements like footing, column, beam, slab, etc. and then handed over to contractors for the execution of the work at site by the labors. The contractor must understand in depth before portraying it to the labors. BBS is necessary to the contractor as it is important in bidding for tenders. All these works play an important role without which work can’t proceed.

Explain briefly various types of Estimates

Before undertaking a construction project it is necessary to know the expected cost and it is worked out by estimation. It is a computation of the quantities required and expenditure likely to be in the construction of the work.

The following are the different types of estimates:

1. Preliminary or Approximate Estimate:
This estimate is prepared to decide the financial aspects,policy and to give the idea of the cost of the proposal to the competent sanctioning authority.The calculation for approximate estimate is done in many ways. There are three types of approximate estimate

Design of a Lintel

Before coming to the design part, it is important to know the importance of lintels in structure. A lintel is a horizontal structural member that is present on top of doors, windows, etc. to support the top load falling on these openings. These are used for load bearing purposes, to transfer its load to the side walls and sometimes for decorative purposes. These can be made of wood or concrete; however, concrete is widely used due to its strength and durability. These can also be prestressed for better load carrying capacity.