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Types of Glass Used in Construction

Introduction:
Glass, ever since it was first crafted around 500 BC, has fascinated humans. Glass has come a long way since it was once believed to have magical abilities. It’s been around for quite some time and is still used because of how adaptable and long-lasting it is. With the advent of modern architecture at the turn of the 20th century, cities became urban factories where concrete, glass, and steel were mass-produced. This philosophy was useful in meeting the demand for homes among the expanding middle class. Buildings made of glass and steel have come to represent progress in many countries because of the positive connotations that its inhabitants associate with wealth and luxury.

What is Glass?
Glass is the oldest and the most elegant material used in construction and other fields. In most cases, glass is used because it improves the aesthetic value of the building. Ever since it was first discovered, people have found glass to be an intriguing substance. Glass is a tough, see-through substance. Glass is made by heating inorganic materials like quartz or sand. When creating a striking visual effect and a novel interior layout, Glass is the material of choice for many architects. When it comes to building materials, glass is unparalleled in its adaptability.

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Different Types of Steel bars Used in Construction

Introduction:
Steel bars, also known as reinforcement steel or rebar, are essential materials used in construction to provide added strength and durability to concrete structures. They are made from carbon steel and come in various sizes, shapes, and grades. In reinforced concrete structures, steel bars are used to resist tensile forces, which concrete cannot withstand on its own. The steel bars are placed in a grid pattern throughout the concrete structure, providing added support and resistance to bending, cracking, and breaking.

What are Steel Bars?
A steel bar is a long, solid metal rod typically made from carbon or alloy steel. It is a versatile and strong material in construction, manufacturing, and other industries. Steel bars often reinforce concrete structures to increase their strength and durability. They are also commonly used in manufacturing machinery, tools, and equipment, as well as in constructing buildings, bridges, and other infrastructure projects.

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All You Need to Know About Roof Vents

What is a Roof Vent?
A roof vent, which is brief for roof ventilation, is a system that allows for enough airflow in the attic. These are an essential part of the roofing system. Its major purpose is to prevent the roof from overheating in the summer and moisture buildup in the winter. Regarding health concerns and structural damage, improper roof vent installation can be very costly. Ice dams, mold, and an astronomically high power bill are some of the repercussions of improper roof vent installation.

How Does Roof Ventilation Work?
Proper attic roof ventilation is necessary to avoid condensation in your attic due to overheating. An attic or roof space needs to be aired, and the two most popular methods are:

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How Is Cement Replaced In The Modern World?

Introduction
Portland cement can be replaced or supplemented with finely divided materials known as “alternative cementitious materials.” Concrete’s technical properties and/or cost are improved and decreased due to their utilization. Fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag, condensed silica fume, limestone dust, cement kiln dust, and natural or manufactured pozzolans are a few examples of these materials. The cement industry is boosting the manufacturing of blended portland cement using industrial by-products, including blast-furnace slags and coal combustion fly ashes, to reduce CO2 emissions. Even though burning fossil fuels is responsible for most CO2 emissions, this only accounts for 50% of the cement industry. The other 50% cannot be eliminated by improving efficiency or switching to alternative energy sources because it is inherent in the chemical reaction that yields calcium carbonate (CaCO3), the main ingredient in cement. Because of this, no cement can be made without releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. As a result, efforts to decarbonize cement manufacturing focus on capturing CO2 rather than reducing the quantity of CO2 in concrete mixtures. However, the high-quality byproducts are few, which calls for an alternative.

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What Are The Different Types of Sand Used In Construction?

Introduction:
Sand is an important building resource but must be bought with great care and attention to detail. It is a fine aggregate that has several applications, including but not limited to: concrete, backfill, gardening, surface treatments, and preventing the accumulation of snow and ice. Most people must understand that not all land is the same and that some are better for certain uses than others. It is important to know what kind of sand is best for building because it comes in different forms, making it good for different kinds of buildings.

What is Sand?
Sand is a type of granular substance made up of tiny fragments of rock and mineral. It is formed through weathering, erosion, and the breakdown of larger rocks over time. The particles that makeup sand range in size, typically falling within the range of 0.0625 to 2 millimeters in diameter. The composition of sand can vary depending on its source, but it is commonly made up of quartz, which is a hard and durable mineral. Other minerals such as feldspar, mica, shell fragments, and various organic materials may also be present in sand. The color of sand can vary, ranging from white to shades of yellow, brown, and even black, depending on the minerals present.

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Foundation Drainage- Its Types, Design, Advantages, and Disadvantages

Introduction:
Foundation drainage is an important part of making a home waterproof. Without some foundation drain, the foundation will be open to too much water and eventually break down and become damaged. There are different kinds of foundation drainage; all can be put in when the base is put in. Foundation drains can sometimes be added after the fact to fix problems with water pooling.

What is Foundation Drainage?
Foundation drainage is a drain placed at the base of a building to keep water from getting around it. Base drains are put in at the same time as the footing when the building base is being built. Also, foundation lines use trenchless technology, meaning the land’s surface changes as little as possible. The main purpose of a foundation drain is to collect and drain groundwater from around the building’s base so that water doesn’t pool or stand there.

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What is Structure in Construction – Its Importance and Types?

Introduction:
The structure is like an animal’s skeleton. It holds the building together. All construction elements have structure to some extent since they hold themselves and other neighboring parts. Traditional architecture did not separate enclosing structures. To illustrate, consider a pyramid or Romanesque cathedral. Even though we could eliminate some, all the stones in the envelope are vital—all work to maintain stability. The difference between structure and envelope began in the 19th century with the introduction of new materials like steel and concrete. Today, most buildings have concrete, steel, or wood structures. Whether the structure is composed of brick, concrete blocks, or other load-bearing walls, it is evident which are structures and which are walls or partitions.

What is Structure in Construction?
In construction, “structure” refers to the arrangement and organization of various components and elements that make up a building or any other engineered construction. It encompasses the framework or skeleton of the construction that provides support, stability, and load-bearing capacity.

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Different Types of Plaster Finishes

What is Plaster?
Plaster is a building material covering rough surfaces such as walls, columns, ceilings, and other architectural components with a thin coat of plastic mortar to create a smooth, long-lasting surface. Plaster is a polymeric material that has been coated (i.e., mortar). Plastering is the term for this procedure. Rendering is the process of plastering an exposed surface on the outside.

Mortar is a light mixture of binders (lime or cement) and fillers (sand or broken stones). Good plaster needs to have a proper bond with the masonry surface. Plaster is made from a dry powder combined with water to create a hard but effective paste before being placed on a surface. Ancient civilizations used mud as plastering to create long-lasting, weather-resistant constructions.
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Camber in Roads- Importance and Types of Camber in Road

Introduction:
Highways often have elevated asphalt medians, where the edge of the surface is higher than the middle. In a diagonal direction, this slope is called the camber. The camber of the road surface is made so that rainwater flows away from the edges. The camber of a road surface is the slope in the transverse direction that helps drain rainwater. It’s also called a road’s cross-slope.

What is Camber in Road?
Camber is a slope on the road surface in the transverse direction that allows rainwater to drain off the surface and keeps cars from sliding and causing damage to the pavement. Again, camber is one of the most important parts of a road’s pavement. It has a lot of benefits that make the road surface last longer.
Generally, a camber is a crown-shaped part of the road surface that is made by raising the middle of the road compared to its edges. Most of the time, the rate of camber or cross slope of a road is written as “1 in n,” which means that the transverse slope is in the ratio of 1 vertical to n horizontal, or it can be written as a percentage. For example, a road with 2.5% camber has a camber of 1 in 40.
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Soil Cement- Composition, Types, Advantages, And Disadvantages

Introduction:
Soil cement is a composite material composed of soil, cement, and water that is used to create a strong and durable construction material. The process involves mixing soil, cement, and water in proportions and compacting the mixture to form a solid mass. The result is a strong and stable material that can be used for various construction applications, such as roadways, foundations, and building walls.

The use of soil cement dates back to the early 20th century, and it has since become a popular construction material due to its low cost and ease of use. The exact ratio of soil to cement to water varies with each application and the qualities of the soil. The resulting material is highly durable and resistant to weathering and erosion, making it an excellent choice for construction projects in various environments.
 Soil Cement
Fig: Soil Cement
Courtesy: g3quality.com
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