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Different types of Roofs used in Buildings

A roof is the highest component of a building that serves as a structural covering to protect the structure from the elements (i,e from rain, sun, wind, etc). Roofs are built in the same way as upper floors in terms of structure, albeit the shape of their upper surfaces may differ. Roofs have been built in a range of shapes and sizes, including flat, pitched, vaulted, domed, and combinations, depending on technical, economic, and aesthetic concerns.

A roof is made up of a structural element that holds the roof covering in place. Trusses, portal beams, slabs (with or without beams), shells, and domes are examples of structural elements. A.C. sheets, G.I. sheets, hardwood shingles, tiles, slates, or the slab itself can all be used as roof coverings.

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Types of Porch used for Home

What is a Porch?
The porch is the first thing visitors notice as they approach your home. The structure is exterior to the building’s walls; however, it may be surrounded by frames extending from the main structure, such as walls, columns, or screens. As a result, the porch enhances the visual appearance of the structure. Therefore, a porch is vital for maximizing the functionality of a home.

As people approach your home, the porch is the first thing they see. The porch sets your home’s atmosphere. There are many different porches, ranging from modest and straightforward to wraparound porches; all have something unique to offer.
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Different types of windows used in building

A window is an opening place in a building that is usually built over the wall to enable sunshine, free air circulation, and an outside view as well as the passage of sound. Windows are crucial for the ventilation of a room. Timber, steel, and aluminium are the most frequent materials used to make windows.

A number of critical aspects must be considered and followed when choosing a window for a building, including the temperature of that place, the location of the room, the size of the room, the wind direction to the room, the utility of the room where the window must be fixed, and the architectural point of view.

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Preparing for PE Civil Exam

Introduction
This exam is referred to as the Principles and Practice of Engineering (PE) exam that is conducted to measure a minimum amount of proficiency in a certain discipline of engineering. This exam is taken by those who have concluded four years in a particular discipline of engineering and have attained professional work experience in that field. The format of the exam is such that it comprises 80 questions and the time given to attend those questions in pencil-and-paper format. At present, such exams are offered in pencil-and-paper format, but some PE exams are directed year-round with the help of computer-based testing.

This exam is conducted in two halves, i.e., the first half comprises questions from all five regions of civil engineering and the second half comprises questions from any one area of practice. The instructions and level of this exam are modified 6 months before the exam administration. The notification for this exam to be conducted in April will be posted in November, and for October, it will be posted in May. When you have to fill out the form for this exam, you will be required to select an afternoon module, based on which scoring will be done. Given below are the five specializations in Civil Engineering:
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Damp Proof Course (DPC)

Introduction
Damp Proof Course or DPC is the protective layer applied to prevent the rising of moisture to the walls from the ground due to capillary action. It is usually 2.5 cm thick with a ratio of rich cement concrete 1:1.5:3 or 2 cm thick with cement mortar 1:2 mixed with standard waterproofing material. It is provided from the plinth level to the entire width of the plinth wall, and the quantities are calculated in square meters (length x breadth). Usually, DPC is not provided at the sills of doors and verandah openings, for which deductions are made. In most cases, 1 kg of cem-seal, Impermo, or another definitive waterproofing compound is used per bag of cement.

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