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Different Types of Plywood and their Grades & Benefits

What is Plywood?
Plywood is a type of composite wood. It’s made using wood veneers taken from hardwoods, softwoods, and other types of trees. Although higher-grade plywood is pressed and heated in more complicated ways, these wood veneers are usually bonded together.

Since plywood has more sturdy surfaces than 24 logs, it is preferable. It is because plywood does not expand when moisture is applied across the board’s grain. Aside from that, plywood is resistant to cracking, shrinking, breaking, and warping due to the procedures it goes through. It’s usually placed in furniture like cabinets, cupboards, television units, dressing tables, center tables, dining tables, and in building projects like bracing, panels, and ornamental objects.

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Types of Stones used in the Construction

What are Stones?
Stones are made up of two or more minerals that make up rocks, which make up the earth’s crust and have no specific shape or chemical composition. In regions where it is naturally accessible, stones are one of the most significant building materials in stone masonry civil engineering. The stones used in building construction should be strong, robust, and tough, with no weathered soft spots of material, fractures, or other faults that would reduce their strength and longevity. Quarrying from large solid rocks is used to obtain stones for construction.

Uses of Stones:
Stones are used in various applications in construction, such as:

  • Masonry, comprising pillars, swags, entrances, and decorative embellishments.
  • Tiles and cladding for the floor and walls.
  • Surrounds for fires, stairwells, and other decorative components
  • Aggregate.
  • Ballast.
  • Concrete, mortar, cement, asphalt, and some bricks contain it.
  • Paving.
  • Roofing materials.
  • Work surfaces and tabletops in the kitchen.
  • Countertops, shower trays, and basins for the bathroom.

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New Rule and Regulations Affecting Construction

A set of regulations that describe the norm for created things such as buildings and non-building structures is known as a building regulation, building control, or building code. To receive planning clearance, which is normally granted by a local council, a building must adhere to the code. Each municipality and urban development body in India has its own set of building codes that must be followed for all construction within their jurisdiction.

Fig 1 Bureau of Indian Standards logo
Fig 1: Bureau of Indian Standards logo

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Well Foundation- Types, Advantages and Disadvantages

Like an open caisson, a well foundation built on the dry bed or after the sand island has been built. Wells can be dug on the river bank and floated to their final location if the water velocity is high and the depth is greater than 5 to 6 meters. When grounding a well, extreme caution is used to ensure that the well is in the proper position. Sandbags are placed around the well. Due to its weight, the well may sink 500 mm to 600 mm into the river. The procedure for sinking wells on the dry bed is identical to that of the wet bed.

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Different Types of Columns Used in Construction

What is a Column?
Columns are rigid vertical structural components meant to support axial compressive loads from beams and slabs and then transfer them to the ground via footings. The various loads created in a structure are carried by column to footings and footings to the soil. As a result, the column is critical to the overall load transfer mechanism, and the structure would be incomplete without it.

However, not every vertical member must be a column. A column is defined as a member with a length greater than three times its smallest cross-sectional size. If this criterion is not met, the vertical part is referred to as a strut.
The strength of a column is determined by the material employed, its geometry, form, cross-section size, and its length and position about the support condition at both ends.

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