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3d Printed Concrete

3D printed concrete is an emerging technology that has many advantages like reduced labour cost, less emission of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, reduced cost, less time consuming, ease of use, ability to change properties as per desire and many more. A case study on building houses using 3D printed concrete and conventional concrete brought into light that cost is effectively reduced using 3D printed concrete which is beneficial for people having low income or for refugees who have nowhere to go and construct houses affordably. Many types of 3D printing can be observed out of which the perfect method is selected based on various criteria. Some admixtures can also be added for better strength and workability that will facilitate ease of extrusion through the nozzle. Compaction or vibration is seen absent here as the process is completely automatic. However, some labours may be needed to move the 3D printed elements from one place to another. Other properties like bond strength, compressive strength and flexural strength are also taken into account for monitoring the effects of standoff distance as well as printing speed on tensile bond strength. Apart from this, some future projects are also expected that can produce homes on other planet and can open an array of opportunities.

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Mineral Admixtures

Introduction
Mineral admixtures are not chemically generated and are sourced from other substances. Mineral admixtures include fly ash, blast furnace slag, and silica fume. They have numerous roles in the concrete mix and improve the concrete’s varied qualities. As we all know, we seldom build anything without using concrete additives on the construction site in order to enhance the qualities. The usage of pozzolanic or mineral admixtures can be traced back to the early days of concrete construction. Mineral admixtures change the characteristics of both fresh and cured concrete. Mineral admixtures are sometimes known as concrete additives or extra cementing materials. They have a hydraulic or pozzolanic effect on the hardened concrete’s nature. Natural pozzolans (such as the volcanic ash used in Roman concrete), fly ash, and silica fumes are examples of cementitious materials. They can be used separately or in conjunction with Portland cement or mixed cement.
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Interlocking Concrete Block Pavement

Introduction
Interlocking Concrete Block Pavement (ICBP) has replaced the conventional concreting technique that required the use of traditional bricks and asphalt on the surface of the road. The traditional method was cumbersome as it required skill and accuracy to maintain the thickness of the road in addition to constant supervision by the site engineer. The roads had to be closed for hours as time was consumed in laying and mixing works. This problem was noticed by the higher authorities and the implementation of concrete blocks was recommended for ease of work.

The shape of such blocks varies as well as in size aspects because the design of these blocks constantly evolved during the years. The interlocking between the blocks was not good initially but as time went on, the design was modified so as to provide perfect interlocking. Interlocking is required to be perfect while laying as sand or other impurities might penetrate the gaps leaving the blocks isolated from the nearby blocks. This would result in breaking of the pattern and eventually the blocks would come out of the place. Hence, the works need to be precise on the field and is to be well monitored by the site engineers.

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India’s first Bio-Brick based building

Recently, the first bio-brick-based building in India was inaugurated at IIT Hyderabad on 2nd September 2021. It is a part of the project BUILD (Bold Unique Idea Lead Development) to demonstrate the strength and versatility of the material. It is a sample building that is made of bio-bricks and supported by a metal framework. It is a perfect example of “wealth from waste”. The roof of the sample building is made of bio-bricks over PVC sheets. It helps to reduce heat. The inside and outside walls of the house are cement plastered to protect the bio-bricks from rain.

Fig 1: India’s first bio-brick based building, IIT Hyderabad
Fig 1: India’s first bio-brick based building, IIT Hyderabad

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Vertical Green Building – A step towards Sustainable Development

Green building is a practice of construction which uses the processes responsible for environment friendly and efficient in resource usage through the life cycle of building starting from design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation and till deconstruction process. In recent years, green architecture has attracted the attention of many contemporary architects and designers in the world. The aim of this concept is to increase green space in urban areas and greater efficiency in buildings especially in cities. It is a step for the survival of human interaction and environment which is derived from the concept of sustainable development in harmony with environmental compatibility to meet the needs of people.

Need for Green Building:
Maximum use of fossil energy and explosive growth of greenhouse gases are the main cause of global warming today. On the other hand, the increasing population of the world as a result of indiscriminate construction has faced cities with serious problems of air pollution. With the population growth, increasing development of cities and subsequent destruction of green spaces has increased the need to find ways to coexist with nature which will conserve energy, prevent land pollution, and reduce energy consumption. Now-a-days vertical housing has become the solution for fulfilling the housing need in urban areas. According to the World Green Building Council’s report, buildings contribute to 33% of carbon dioxide emission, 17% of water consumption, 25% of wood consumption, 30-40%of raw material consumption, and 40-50% of energy consumption in its construction process and operation. Therefore based on these facts, an environmentally sound construction and development should be considered to reduce the energy consumption. So the Green Building concept is being a trusted way to solve this issue. It is said that the building construction companies produce the second largest amount of greenhouse gases (30-40%) and demolition waste. The major energy consumption in building comes from modern lifestyle equipment like air-conditioning system, cooler, water heating to provide comfort to building occupants etc. These all add to pollution. Occupant activities also generate large amount of solid waste and water waste as well. As compared to a regular structure, a green building uses less energy, less water and other natural resources which create less waste and greenhouse gas and provides a healthy living place for people.

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