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Different types of windows used in building

A window is an opening place in a building that is usually built over the wall to enable sunshine, free air circulation, and an outside view as well as the passage of sound. Windows are crucial for the ventilation of a room. Timber, steel, and aluminium are the most frequent materials used to make windows.

A number of critical aspects must be considered and followed when choosing a window for a building, including the temperature of that place, the location of the room, the size of the room, the wind direction to the room, the utility of the room where the window must be fixed, and the architectural point of view.

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Automated Construction By Contour Crafting

Prof. Amol B. Kawade, Miss. Chaitali R. Satpute
Amrutvahini College of Engineering, Sangamner

Although automation has advanced in manufacturing, the growth of automation in construction has been slow. Conventional methods of manufacturing automation do not lend themselves to construction of large structures with internal features. This may explain the slow rate of growth in construction automation. Contour Crafting (CC) is a recent layered fabrication technology that has a great potential in automated construction of whole structures as well as sub-components. Using this process, a single house or a colony of houses, each with possibly a different design, may be automatically constructed in a single run, imbedded in each house all the conduits for electrical, plumbing and air-conditioning. Our research also addresses the application of CC in building habitats on other planets. CC will most probably be one of the very few feasible approaches for building structures on other planets, such as Moon and Mars, which are being targeted for human colonization before the end of the new century. Contour Crafting is an emerging technology that uses robotics to construct free form building structures by repeatedly laying down layers of material such as concrete. The Contour Crafting technology scales up automated additive fabrication from building small industrial parts to constructing buildings. Optimal machine operation planning for Contour Crafting benefits the technology by increasing the efficiency of construction, especially for complicated structures. The research reported here has aimed at providing a systematic solution for improving the overall Contour Crafting system efficiency in building custom-designed buildings. An approach is first presented to find the optimal machine operation plan for the single nozzle Contour Crafting system. Other approaches are then presented to determine collision-free operation plans for machines with multiple nozzles. The models developed incorporate physical constraints as well as some practical construction issues.

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Breaking Through The Barriers To Sustainable Building

Insights from Building Professionals on Government Initiatives to Promote Environmentally Sound Practices
By Sandeep Singh

75% of the world’s energy is consumed in cities. 40% of the world’s energy is consumed in buildings. The most interesting potential for CO2-reduction in cities from an economical point of view lays in the modernization of the building’s infrastructure. Making existing and new buildings to Green Buildings is one of the most effective levers to meet the challenges of CO2 reduction in cities. The objective of the presentation is to give a short overview of the frame conditions, the existing labels and – most important – show success stories.

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What are the functions of different components of paint?

For normal paint application, there are mainly three main components of paint, namely primer, undercoat and finishing coat.

Primer: This is the first layer of a typical painting system and it is used to inhabit corrosion and provide a good bond for subsequent coats.

Undercoat: This component acts as a barrier to corrosion agents and even out irregularities of bonding surface. It also serves to hide the underlying background and prevent the details and colour of the area of application to affect the designed colour and finishing details of paint.
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Evaluation Of Effectiveness Of Strawbale As A Building Material

Fawale, Babatunde Lawale
Ajayi, Johnson Oluwafemi
Oyedemi, Peter Oluwatosin

This project is an evaluation of the effectiveness of strawbale in building construction. It introduced the use of straw, which when baled could be used as a resource, that is, as a walling material, more economically than other conventional walling materials.

This study shows the edges that strawbale has over other conventional walling materials (sandcrete block), thermal insulating property, availability ease of construction, economical amongst others. The minimum plaster thickness (coating) which when applied to the strawbale wall that can give the optimum strength was found to be 15mm this is obtained from compressive strength test.

It also displays the graphical representation of the thermal insulation tests carried out on the two prototype buildings (strawbale and sandcrete block), in which strawbale building retained more heat than the sandcrete block building.
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