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Types of Stones used in the Construction

What are Stones?
Stones are made up of two or more minerals that make up rocks, which make up the earth’s crust and have no specific shape or chemical composition. In regions where it is naturally accessible, stones are one of the most significant building materials in stone masonry civil engineering. The stones used in building construction should be strong, robust, and tough, with no weathered soft spots of material, fractures, or other faults that would reduce their strength and longevity. Quarrying from large solid rocks is used to obtain stones for construction.

Uses of Stones:
Stones are used in various applications in construction, such as:

  • Masonry, comprising pillars, swags, entrances, and decorative embellishments.
  • Tiles and cladding for the floor and walls.
  • Surrounds for fires, stairwells, and other decorative components
  • Aggregate.
  • Ballast.
  • Concrete, mortar, cement, asphalt, and some bricks contain it.
  • Paving.
  • Roofing materials.
  • Work surfaces and tabletops in the kitchen.
  • Countertops, shower trays, and basins for the bathroom.

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Different Types of Bricks Used in Construction

Bricks are rectangular units of uniform dimensions. Clay is used to making bricks. In construction, there are different types of brick. When stone is not accessible, bricks are commonly utilized as a substitute. Brick is a common building material made of clay and comes in rectangular shapes. Because of their inexpensive cost and long lifespan, they have remained popular since ancient times.

Advantages of Bricks Used in Construction:

  • Brick is fire-resistant and can sustain high temperatures.
  • Brick is a long-lasting and sturdy material.
  • .Individual brick problems can be solved without tearing down and rebuilding the entire structure.
  • For environmental protection, brick does not require the use of paints
  • Clay that is readily available aids in the production of bricks in the local area, reducing shipping expenses. It could suggest that brick construction is less expensive than stone, concrete, or steel construction.

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Different Types of Lintels

What is Lintel?
Doors and windows are not only necessary parts of a building’s structure, but they also serve as vulnerable spots in the exterior shell. Creating an entrance in a building necessitates sound engineering since it is necessary to preserve structural and thermal stability—a lintel used in this situation.

A lintel is a beam that spans entrances in buildings such as doors, windows, and other openings to sustain the load from the structure above. The lintel beam’s width equals the wall’s width, and its end is built into the wall—lintels classified according to the material used in their construction.

Lintels are typically rectangular, support a wall over a door or window, and anchor the door and window frames wherever utilized. Lintels built of wood, stone, brick, reinforced brickwork, reinforced concrete, or rolling steel pieces embedded in cement concrete. Lintels are typically employed for load-bearing purposes, although they can also use as decorative elements.

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Different Types of Arches in Construction

What is Arch?
An arch is a curved architectural shape that takes loads around an entrance and transfers them to abutments, jambs, or piers on either side of the arch’s profile. Since the Etruscans, arches have been a popular architectural feature, credited with inventing them, though the Romans refined and popularized them. Many other structural forms, such as vaults, arcades, and bridges, have evolved from the techniques used to design and construct arches.

There are no tensile stresses in arches because they are compressive constructions. They are self-supporting and are held in compression by the force of gravity acting on their weight. It makes them extremely stable and efficient, allowing them to span greater distances and carry heavier weights than horizontal beams.

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Different types of Roofs used in Buildings

A roof is the highest component of a building that serves as a structural covering to protect the structure from the elements (i,e from rain, sun, wind, etc). Roofs are built in the same way as upper floors in terms of structure, albeit the shape of their upper surfaces may differ. Roofs have been built in a range of shapes and sizes, including flat, pitched, vaulted, domed, and combinations, depending on technical, economic, and aesthetic concerns.

A roof is made up of a structural element that holds the roof covering in place. Trusses, portal beams, slabs (with or without beams), shells, and domes are examples of structural elements. A.C. sheets, G.I. sheets, hardwood shingles, tiles, slates, or the slab itself can all be used as roof coverings.

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