According to AISC, the cross sectional area of of bolts and threaded parts are designed for specified allowable unit tension and shear stresses. In case of seismic loads and wind loads in combination of gravity loads, we increase the allowable stresses by 1/3. Normally in case of direct tension, rivets are not recommended.

Bearing type connections are the most commonly used connection is building construction. In buildings, the allowable bearing stress F_{p}, ksi (MPa), on projected area of fasteners is

F_{p}=1.2 F_{u}

where

F_{u}is the tensile strength of the connected part in ksi (MPa).