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Low Cost Housing

Low Cost Housing is a new concept which deals with effective budgeting and following of techniques which help in reducing the cost construction through the use of locally available materials along with improved skills and technology without sacrificing the strength, performance and life of the structure.There is huge misconception that low cost housing is suitable for only sub standard works and they are constructed by utilizing cheap building materials of low quality.The fact is that Low cost housing is done by proper management of resources.Economy is also achieved by postponing finishing works or implementing them in phases.

Building Cost
The building construction cost can be divided into two parts namely:
Building material cost : 65 to 70 %
Labour cost : 65 to 70 %
Now in low cost housing, building material cost is less because we make use of the locally available materials and also the labour cost can be reduced by properly making the time schedule of our work. Cost of reduction is achieved by selection of more efficient material or by an improved design.

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What are the Ponding Considerations In Buildings?

Those flat roof which face a problem of water accumulation require stability analysis under ponding conditions. For checking the stability we need to see the following equations, if both of these are fulfilled

Cp+0.9Cs<= 0.25
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What is the Shear on Connectors?

We take the smaller value out of these two conditions to calculate the total horizontal shear which is to be to be resisted by the shear connectors in building construction
Vh= 0.85fcAc/2
Vh=As Fy/2
Vh = Total horizontal shear, kip (kN), between maximum positive moment and each end of steel beams (or between point of maximum positive moment and point of contraflexure in continuous beam)
fc= Specified compressive strength of concrete at 28 days, ksi (MPa)
Ac = Actual area of effective concrete flange in inch2(mm2)
As = Area of steel beam in inch2(mm2)

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What are the Number of Connectors Required for Building Construction?

Total number of connectors required to resist Vh is given by Vh/q
where q is the allowable shear for one connector, kip (kN) and its value is given in structural design guides.

Some keypoints should be considered
1. Required number of shear connectors should be placed uniformly in the section having zero to maximum moment.
2. Shear Connectors should have a minimum of 25.4mm (1inch) of concrete cover in all the directions.
3) Stud diameter should not exceed 2.5 times the beam-flange thickness. ( May increase only if studs are located directly over the web)

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Composite Construction

In a composite construction, a concrete slab and steel beams act together to resist the load acting on beam and thus the slab acts as a cover plate. Due to this we use a lighter steel section in composite construction

What are the Two Methods of Composite Construction in Buildings?
Method 1. In the first method, we cast the steel beam entirely in the concretion i.e steel beam encased in the concrete. The steel concrete bond is the main reason for composite action. The beam is laterally braced therefore the allowable stress in the flanges is 0.66Fy, where Fy is the yield strength, ksi (MPa), of the steel.

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