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Would ground settlement occur ahead or behind the jacking face for pipe-jacking?

Would ground settlement occur ahead or behind the jacking face for pipe-jacking?

It is reported by Lake (1992) that settlements are expected at the ground surface at a distance of 1-2 times of tunnel depth ahead of the tunnel face and 80% to 90% of settlement to be completed at a similar distance behind the face. However, in the paper “Monitoring of ground response associated with pipe jacking works – recent experience in Hong Kong”, the author pointed out that based on their experience, development of longitudinal settlement was observed at a distance of 3-4 times of tunnel depth behind the tunnel face and little settlements were reported immediately above the tunneling face.

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This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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Kanwarjot Singh

Kanwarjot Singh is the founder of Civil Engineering Portal, a leading civil engineering website which has been awarded as the best online publication by CIDC. He did his BE civil from Thapar University, Patiala and has been working on this website with his team of Civil Engineers.

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