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Why is grouting normally performed in segmental linings in tunnels?

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Grouting is usually carried out under pressure in segmental linings during tunnel construction because of the following reasons:

(i) It helps in the uniform transfer of ground pressure to the linings.

(ii) The grout serves to reduce the surface settlement.

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(iii) Grout fills up the annulus of tunnel linings so that it upholds the designed tunnel shapes.

(iv) The presence of grout aids in limiting groundwater seepage in the tunnels.

This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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