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In employing sprayed concrete lining methods for lining a large tunnel in soft ground, the tunneling face is normally divided into several parts because of the following reasons:
(i) It enables early closure of part of the invert of the tunnel.
(iii) For unit advancement in any part of the tunnel excavation, the amount of excavation and sprayed concrete is reduced. As such, this allows for early provision of primary support.
This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.