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What is the purpose of subdivision of tunneling faces in Sprayed Concrete Linings (SCL) method?

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In employing sprayed concrete lining methods for lining a large tunnel in soft ground, the tunneling face is normally divided into several parts because of the following reasons:

(i) It enables early closure of part of the invert of the tunnel.

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(ii) With the excavation in each part taking place at different times, it helps to reduce the area of exposure of the tunnel face so that there is better control on tunnel stability.

(iii) For unit advancement in any part of the tunnel excavation, the amount of excavation and sprayed concrete is reduced. As such, this allows for early provision of primary support.

This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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