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Civil Engineering Information

New Rule and Regulations Affecting Construction

A set of regulations that describe the norm for created things such as buildings and non-building structures is known as a building regulation, building control, or building code. To receive planning clearance, which is normally granted by a local council, a building must adhere to the code. Each municipality and urban development body in India has its own set of building codes that must be followed for all construction within their jurisdiction.

Fig 1 Bureau of Indian Standards logo
Fig 1: Bureau of Indian Standards logo

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Different Types of Rollers Used in Construction Work

Rollers are huge construction machines that compress earth, concrete, gravel, crushed stone, or asphalt on construction sites surfaces. They are extensively utilized in road building and compact foundations on major construction sites and rely on their weight, combined with other mechanisms such as vibration and kneading, to compress the surface. There are different types of rollers ideal for different types of compaction.

The rolling method ensures that foundations are properly compacted and that materials are compact and do not come free, and road rollers are well-known in the building business. The road roller has several components, including diesel engines a canopy to protect the driver. This drum can be either vibratory or static, a compaction meter to measure the level of compaction, a water system, and tires.
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Different Types of Traps Used in Plumbing

What are Traps in Plumbing?
A trap is a mechanism that prevents sewer gases from entering the structure. The traps hold a little water and are situated underneath or within a plumbing fixture. The holding water provides a water seal, which prevents foul gases from drain pipes from returning to the structure. As a result, traps are installed in all plumbing fixtures such as sinks, washbasins, bathtubs, and toilets.

Drain lines are designed to drain water from any water-using device or fixture in the home. It is connected to the main sewer system. As a result, there should be a trap in the pipe that can be used to seal the drain. A net is installed in the gully trap to keep debris out. The water seal’s height in the gully trap is 60 and 70 mm.

The plumbing traps are of high quality. A bent pipe is employed to create a water seal in any trap. You may have seen floor traps, alley traps, p-traps, and other design traps in your house plumbing fixtures.
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Gypsum Board – Types, Uses, Advantages & Disadvantages

The home-building and remodeling industry has seen many construction materials utilized to improve a building’s functioning and aesthetic appeal. Gypsum board is one such product.

What is a Gypsum Board?
A collection of panel goods is referred to as “gypsum board.” These have a non-combustible gypsum core with paper surfacing front, back, and long edges. The term “gypsum panel products” refers to the various gypsum boards used in building and construction. The basis of all gypsum board products is gypsum, but the surface can be wrapped in various materials, including paper and fiberglass matting.

Drywall, wallboard, and plasterboard are used to describe gypsum boards. They differ from other panel-type shelters, and road and building products, such as plywood, hardboard, and fiberboard, due to their non-combustible core and paper facers. Gypsum wallboard creates a continuous surface suited for various interior design projects, both residential and commercial when their seams and fastener heads are covered with a joint compound system.
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Different Types of Bricks Used in Construction

Bricks are rectangular units of uniform dimensions. Clay is used to making bricks. In construction, there are different types of brick. When stone is not accessible, bricks are commonly utilized as a substitute. Brick is a common building material made of clay and comes in rectangular shapes. Because of their inexpensive cost and long lifespan, they have remained popular since ancient times.

Advantages of Bricks Used in Construction:

  • Brick is fire-resistant and can sustain high temperatures.
  • Brick is a long-lasting and sturdy material.
  • .Individual brick problems can be solved without tearing down and rebuilding the entire structure.
  • For environmental protection, brick does not require the use of paints
  • Clay that is readily available aids in the production of bricks in the local area, reducing shipping expenses. It could suggest that brick construction is less expensive than stone, concrete, or steel construction.

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Grillage Foundation – Design, Installation & Types

What Grillage Foundation?
Grillage foundations are made of one, two, or more levels of beams (usual steel) superimposed on a layer of concrete to distribute load across a large area. It is found at the bottom of the columns. These layers are concrete-encased and at right angles to one another. This foundation form commonly supports heavy building columns, piers, and scaffolds.

Even though foundation and grillage appear to be the same, they are not. Grillage disperses huge loads across broad areas, similar to how foundations distribute the load from the structure to the ground.

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Vaulted Ceilings – Types, Advantages and Disadvantages

What is Vaulted Ceiling?
A vaulted ceiling slopes up toward the roof and extends higher than average flat ceilings’ typical eight to ten-foot height. Arched, barrel, cathedral, domed, groin, and rib are some of the most popular vaulted ceilings, each with its structure. Originally used to designate ceilings with a self-supporting arch in classical architectural design, the word “vaulted ceiling” is now commonly used to describe any sloped, high ceiling.

During the middle ages, vaulted ceilings were a significant element of Gothic and Roman churches and basilicas (public buildings). Still, over time, they progressively became the ceilings of some traditional, modern, and industrial-style dwellings. A vaulted ceiling differs from other types of ceilings in that it extends from the building’s side walls to the central point, creating a great volume of overhead space.

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Different Types of Pavers

What is Pavers?
Pavers are slabs and blocks made of several materials, including brick (clay), concrete, flagstone, marble, travertine, porcelain, rubber, and even plastic, used to make driveways, patios, pools decks, and other structures. For such tasks, they can be a very suitable concrete option. Except for some stamped concrete, Pavers look nicer than conventional concrete slabs. Finally, when it comes to paver installation, you have the option of using interlocking or slabs.

They’re employed in various places throughout the house, notably outside. the most typical applications of pavers are:
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Different Types of Roofing Sheets

A roofing sheet is a relatively modern type of roof covering, especially when compared to roofing materials such as thatch or roof tiles, which have been used for hundreds, if not thousands, of years. With the development of new roofing materials, the global roofing industry has progressed.

Different Types of Roofing Sheets:

1. Corrugated Roofing Sheets:
Fig 1 Corrugated Roofing Sheets
Fig 1: Corrugated Roofing Sheets:

Because of its shape, corrugated roofing is extremely durable. Because the screws for fastening penetrate through the peak of the ribs, these sheets require support strips to stabilize the material. The ribs and valleys’ curvature inhibits the screws from properly sealing in the valleys.

Flimsy and lightweight metals like aluminum can also be fitted to withstand decades of weather beating thanks to the particular corrugated design. Galvanized steel sheet is the most common corrugated sheet, and it is typically used as the base material. Garages, porches, and sheds can all benefit from these roofing sheets.

2. Aluminum Roofing Sheet:
Aluminum roofing sheet is a popular roofing material in many homes since it is long-lasting, energy-efficient, low-maintenance, and cost-effective. It is anti-corrosive, fire-resistant, simple to install, and can tolerate extreme weather conditions. Aluminum is a lightweight metal roofing material that helps to reduce structural load

Fig 2 Aluminum Roofing Sheets
Fig 2: Aluminum Roofing Sheets:

3. Asbestos Cement Roofing Sheet:
Fig 3 Asbestos Cement Roofing Sheets
Fig 3: Asbestos Cement Roofing Sheets:

This roof construction method employed asbestos fiber as a reinforcement material with cement. Asbestos fibers give the roof sheet body rigidity and stiffness, allowing it to maintain its size and shape without breaking.

4. Polycarbonate Roofing Sheet:
olycarbonate roofing sheets come in a variety of thicknesses and grades. They’re a lot lighter than steel, yet they’re strong and resistant to breaking and splits. They’re easy to work with and can be welded or fixed using screws and support rods. These sheets may also be cut easily using sharp-edged scissors and circular saws without using other tools or machines.

Fig 4 Polycarbonate Roofing Sheets
Fig 4: Polycarbonate Roofing Sheets:

Because polycarbonate roofing sheets are so sturdy and flexible, they allow for more imaginative design in their employed structures. One of the most advantageous properties of polycarbonate is that it allows maximum sunlight while blocking dangerous UV radiation. As a result, it’s the most effective way to allow in as much light as possible while avoiding harm. These sheets are commonly employed in large-scale commercial and industrial constructions.

5. Fiber Reinforced Plastic Roofing Sheet:
Fig- 5 -Fiber Reinforced Plastic Roofing Sheets
Fig 5: Fiber Reinforced Plastic Roofing Sheets:

Fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) is a thermosetting resin and fiber composite material. Fiber acts as a reinforcing material, providing rigidity and aiding in preserving the molded shape in this situation. Roofing sheets come in various colors and styles and can be flat or corrugated. The degree of opacity in these sheets is adjusted during manufacture, making it easier to choose the proper sheet for the quantity of sunlight required in the roofed space. They are anti-corrosive and simple to repair, resulting in lower maintenance costs.

6. Unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride Roofing Sheet:
Fig 6 Unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride Roofing Sheets
Fig 6: Unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride Roofing Sheets:

Because it is hard and unyielding, UPVC, or unplasticized polyvinyl chloride, varies from PVC in flexibility functions. UPVC does not have plasticizers added to its PVC substance, so it is not flexible, hence “unplasticized.”

It is also robust and low-maintenance, just like the PVC roofing sheet. It’s an excellent heat and energy insulator, and it’s frequently used as a roofing material to protect against corrosion and harsh temperatures. Because UPVC is robust and inflexible, it is difficult to destroy, making it excellent for enhancing the security of both residential and commercial facilities in the event of a robbery or break-in.

7. Plastic Roofing Sheet:
Fig 7 Plastic Roofing Sheets
Fig 7: Plastic Roofing Sheets:

PVC-based plastic roofing sheets are similar to bitumen-based roofing sheets in many ways. These plastic sheets are perfect for homeowners looking for a low-cost, lightweight roof sheet with a corrugated form factor. Because of its high light transmission, PVC roofing is frequently utilized as a low-cost alternative to roof lights, allowing you to flood an area with light. However, their low-cost PVC sheets are quite durable.

Plastic roofing sheets are frequently used as a substitute for polycarbonate roofing. It is due to the transparent finishes being available at a slightly lower cost and easier to install. PVC roofing only requires basic fixings and flashings to install, rather than a complete roofing system with glazing bars and other components. These sheets can combine with other materials to create a ceiling with a mix of opaque and translucent regions that enable light to pass through to the space below.

8. Bitumen Roofing Sheet:
Fig 8 Plastic Roofing Sheets
Fig 8: Plastic Roofing Sheets:

Bituminous roof sheets protect residential and commercial structures. As the name implies, these are rolls of layers that arrive at the job site. After that, they’re spread out on a firm surface. The most well-known type of sheet-based coating is a bituminous waterproofing film. Adjacent membranes are joined using the same hot adhesive.. The same air gun is also used to make joints between adjacent layers. The sheets are covered by roughly 100mm to create a waterproof connection.

9. Color Coated Roofing Sheet:
Sheets are coated with 55 percent aluminum, 43 percent zinc, and 1.5 percent silicon and mixed with high–quality colors that meet particular specifications in this form of roof sheet steel and another alloy. It is also available in a single color-coated version and a multicolor-coated version in various colors. This color coating provides the item a royal appearance while also providing the benefit of being non-corrosive.

Fig 9 Color Coated Roofing Sheets
Fig 9: Color Coated Roofing Sheets:

10. Galvanized Iron Roofing Sheet:
Fig 10 Galvanized Iron Roofing Sheets
Fig 10: Galvanized Iron Roofing Sheets:

The galvanized iron coating has a unique metallurgical structure that protects against abrasion and mechanical damage during shipment, installation, and service. Galvanized iron roofing sheets are designed to automatically protect any damaged areas of the sheet. The sheets serve as a cathode or sacrificial layer of protection for any small areas that may be damaged during shipping. As a result, the covering protects the full length of the sheets.

11. Rubber Roofing Sheet:
Secondary roofing material is usually gladded over the current roof to provide heat resistance and waterproofing to achieve a single sheet frame. Rubber roofing sheet is primarily used for rehabilitation. Ethylene Propylene Diane Monomer Rubber is employed in this sheet, which is taped and bonded on top of the existing surface.

Fig 11 Rubber Roofing Sheets
Fig 11: Rubber Roofing Sheets:

12. PUF Roofing Sheet:
Fig 12 PUF Roofing Sheets
Fig 12: PUF Roofing Sheets:

Polyurethane foam (PUF) is a type of polyurethane foam. Between two sheets of identical material and dimension, the foams are sandwiched. These sheets are utilized in applications where thermal insulation is important.

13. Bio-Composite Roofing Sheet:
A bio-composite is a material made up of a resin matrix and natural fiber reinforcing. Natural fibers were first used as reinforcement in polymeric composites due to environmental concerns and the high cost of synthetic fibers. Polymers from both renewable and nonrenewable sources make up the matrix phase. It protects the roofing sheets from environmental degradation and mechanical damage, holds the fibers together, and transfers the stresses.

14. Bamboo Roofing Sheet:
Fig 13 Bamboo Roofing Sheets
Fig 13: Bamboo Roofing Sheets

Bamboo roofing sheets are made from a renewable natural resource and can be used to cover dwellings, storage facilities, animal pens, and a variety of other temporary and permanent constructions. They are the same size as traditional corrugated roofing sheets and have the same standard specifications. Bamboo roofs are more soundproof in the rain and cooler in the sun than metal or plastic sheets. According to a study, cows in bamboo-roofed shelters produce more milk than those in corrugated zinc-roofed sheds due to the cooler atmosphere

Factors to Consider When Choosing Roofing Material:
1. Material Weight:
Some roofing materials are heavier than others. As a result, it’s an important element to address because it could compromise the structural integrity of your property. Make sure your house is physically sound enough to support the weight of your chosen roofing material.

2. Weather Condition:
The weather conditions in your area will determine the material of the roof sheet. The roofing material is also heat and weather-resistant.

3. Color Variety:
Choose a roofing material based on its hue if you want a premium appearance or one that blends in with your overall aesthetic.

4. Maintenance:
Consider how much time and work you can devote to roofing upkeep. It’s worth noting that other materials, such as metal, require far less maintenance, making them ideal for busy homes.

5. Overall Cost:
Your budget is the one that sets the tone right away. You can see which roofing materials are on the table for you and which ones aren’t by evaluating how much money you’re willing to spend. Keep in mind that more expensive materials aren’t always better.

Roofing Sheets are manufactured for various applications and are utilized in many types of roofing in residential and commercial construction. Each roofing sheet is unique in function and qualities, although they all serve different purposes. The type of roofing material used in your home or business building construction will determine the duration, maintenance costs, and durability of your roof. Before you go out and buy roofing sheets, make sure you’ve done your homework and know which ones are ideal for you.

1. What are the different types of roofing sheets? – Constro Facilitator. (2021, March 24). Constro Facilitator;
2. Visions, param. (2018, September 9). Different types of Roofing sheets. Different Types of Roofing Sheets. ~ PARAM VISIONS;
3. Mahajan, B. (2022, February 11). 20 Roof Sheet Types | Types Of Roof Sheets | Types Of Roofing Sheet | Best Roofing Sheets For House. Civiconcepts;
4. Roofing sheets?: Pros, Cons & Prices of Corrugated, Polycarbonate, Plastic, Metal Sheets. (2021, July 29). Housing News;
5. Types of Roofing Sheets | Roofing Megastore. (2018, July 19). Types of Roofing Sheets | Roofing Megastore;
6. The Different Types of Roofing Sheets and Their Functions – Parklane Commercial Corporation. (2021, May 5). Parklane Commercial Corporation;

Types of Beams Used in Construction

A beam is a structural element or member that largely transfers loads placed along its axis to its supports, such as walls, columns, foundations, and so on, with bending being the primary way of deflection.

Various types of beams are employed in the construction of buildings and structures. Vertical loads, shear stresses, and bending moments can all be absorbed by these horizontal structural members. Beams distributed loads throughout their length to their terminals, including walls, columns, foundations, and other structures.
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