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Gypsum Board – Types, Uses, Advantages & Disadvantages

The home-building and remodeling industry has seen many construction materials utilized to improve a building’s functioning and aesthetic appeal. Gypsum board is one such product.

What is a Gypsum Board?
A collection of panel goods is referred to as “gypsum board.” These have a non-combustible gypsum core with paper surfacing front, back, and long edges. The term “gypsum panel products” refers to the various gypsum boards used in building and construction. The basis of all gypsum board products is gypsum, but the surface can be wrapped in various materials, including paper and fiberglass matting.

Drywall, wallboard, and plasterboard are used to describe gypsum boards. They differ from other panel-type shelters, and road and building products, such as plywood, hardboard, and fiberboard, due to their non-combustible core and paper facers. Gypsum wallboard creates a continuous surface suited for various interior design projects, both residential and commercial when their seams and fastener heads are covered with a joint compound system.

Properties of Gypsum Board:
1. Gypsum Is Fire-Resistant:
Gypsum boards are fire resistant and safeguard the structure from fire threats by preventing the fire from spreading further. Due to chemically bound water in the gypsum, it possesses a fire-resistant quality. When gypsum boards are exposed to fire, the water contained within the gypsum evaporates, forming a protective layer.

2. Thermal Properties of Gypsum:
Gypsum can regulate variables such as humidity and temperature in the home. The insulating characteristics of gypsum plasterboard or formwork used in buildings are improved.

3. Acoustic Property of Gypsum:
Sound isolation is prioritized in the design of gypsum materials. Other methods, such as masonry, would work well, as it is commonly used in a thicker thickness and is no less demanding than gypsum. Gypsum plasterboard is designed to absorb sound and reduce reverberation.. Adding an air space between two solid gypsum walls improves acoustic performance by preventing noise from passing through. For example, instead of a 110mm thick brick wall, we can use 75mm thick drywall to obtain the same sound performance.

4. Non-combustible Property of Gypsum:
The heating of gypsum products causes the water crystals in the gypsum material to heat up. Calcinations is the process of dehydrating gypsum with heat. Calcinations creates a protective layer over the components, preventing them from combusting and allowing the materials around them to retain a lower, safer temperature.
The residue will act as an insulating layer until it is separated, even after the water crystals have been entirely calcined. Because of its non-combustible quality and capacity to slow fire development for hours depending on the extent to which gypsum products are utilized, gypsum is regarded as an effective fire retarder.

Uses of Gypsum Board:

Types of Gypsum Board:
1. Fire Resistant Gypsum Boards:
Fig 1 Fire Resistant Gypsum Boards
Fig 1: Fire Resistant Gypsum Boards

Due to the particular behavior of the gypsum core when exposed to fire, a fire-resistant gypsum board provides good fire protection in buildings. The chemically mixed water is gradually released in the form of water vapor when a fire-resistant gypsum board protects building materials exposed to fire. This situation develops when a board or gypsum finish is continuously exposed to a temperature above 49°C, this situation develops.

Uses of Fire Resistant Gypsum Boards:
When a high level of fire protection is required in ceilings and drywall, this product is ideal.

2. Water-Resistant Gypsum Board:
Fig 2 Water Resistant Gypsum Boards
Fig 2: Water Resistant Gypsum Boards

This type has water-repellent face paper and a water-resistant gypsum core. It can be used as a foundation for wall tiles in bathtubs, showers, and other wet places.

Uses of Water-Resistant Gypsum Boards:

3. Backing Gypsum Board:
The backing gypsum comprises various layers in the construction process, where several layers of gypsum boards are utilized as a soundproofing material to give the walls strength and fire resistance. Walls and ceilings are covered with backing gypsum boards, also used for self-leveling screeds.
Fig 3 Backing Gypsum Boards
Fig 3: Backing Gypsum Boards

Uses of Backing Gypsum Boards:

4. Drywall White Board:
Fig 4 Drywall White Boards
Fig 4: Drywall White Boards

Drywall is made out of thin gypsum board panels used to build walls. The board comprises two layers of special paper with a layer of gypsum rock sandwiched between them. Drywall is a far more efficient form of a building than applying wet plaster to a gypsum lath, which was once standard.

Uses of Drywall White Boards:

Advantages of Gypsum Board:

Disadvantages of Gypsum Board:

Gypsum board has a variety of qualities that make it one of the greatest building materials for interior design. Gypsum materials can be used for various construction projects depending on your needs. Designers should know the sort of gypsum board to use because it can reduce the cost of a building while also improving its quality.

1. What Is Gypsum? | Types of Gypsum Products | Properties of Gypsum | Uses of Gypsum | Advantages & Disadvantages of Gypsum. (2021, July 20). 9To5Civil;
2. Gundaraniya, N. (2022, January 5). What Is Gypsum Boards? | Properties of Gypsum Board | Types of Gypsum Board | Advantages & Disadvantages of Gypsum Board. CivilJungle;
3. La nouvelle agence, G.-. (2020, June 3). Gypsum Board – Uses and Benefits | Gyproc Malaysia. Gyproc Malaysia;
4. The different types of gypsum boards and their uses – Knauf Tanzania. (2021, February 19). Knauf Tanzania;
5. Mahajan, B. (2020, July 17). What Is Gypsum Board | Properties Of Gypsum Board | Application Of Gypsum Board | Types Of Gypsum Board. Civiconcepts;
6. Megaturk. (2020, April 22). Gypsum Board Types – Board & Wall Co. Drywall Turkey. Board & Wall Co. Drywall Turkey;

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Kanwarjot Singh

Kanwarjot Singh is the founder of Civil Engineering Portal, a leading civil engineering website which has been awarded as the best online publication by CIDC. He did his BE civil from Thapar University, Patiala and has been working on this website with his team of Civil Engineers.

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