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Civil Engineering Information

What are the Types of Frame Structures?

What is Frame Structure?
Framing is the process of mixing building materials to form the framework of a building. As a result, a framed structure uses beams, columns, and a slab to withstand gravity and other lateral loads. As a rule, these structures are employed to counteract the pressures and moments that emerge from the loading.

Characteristics of a Frame Structure:

  • A-frame structure is a carefully arranged set of beams, columns, and slabs that can withstand the tremendous stresses and moments generated by severe gravity and lateral loads.
  • They come together to form a framework of steel or concrete that supports the weight and transmits it to the ground without incident.
  • In a framed structural system, walls are used to enclose the resulting cavity. There are two types of walls here: load-bearing and non-load-bearing. Shear walls make up the bulk of the framed building’s load-bearing walls.
  • Pin or permanent connections join the frame’s structural parts.
  • Consequently, beams, columns, slabs, and shear walls are a framed structure’s primary structural or load-carrying elements (load-bearing walls).
  • The framework of a building may be fabricated from a wide variety of materials.

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Different Types of Loads used in Construction and Structure

What is Load?
Loads are the forces that can result in stresses, deformations, or accelerations. There are numerous different types of structural loads that can act on a structure. Its nature will differ depending on the design, usage, location, and materials. When a structure fails, it is almost always because its load-carrying capacity is inadequate for its actual load. Compression, Tension, and Shear are all possible types of structural loads.

In the field of structural analysis, engineers examine the effects of loads on structures and structural components. It is important to keep an eye on how much weight a structure can handle to avoid structural failure. Structural problems and even failure can result from various loads, which can cause stress, displacement, or deformation. An important and difficult task is determining the total load on a structure.
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Site Preparation of Building Construction Project

What is Site Preparation?
The term “site preparation” describes the actions taken before an engineer begins their work. The site cleared in preparation for the new building is called the old or unfriendly site. Since the land and structures already there are suitable for the construction work that will soon begin there, site preparation is not required.

Before construction, the site must be prepared by demolishing old buildings, clearing building sites, mapping underground services and wires, doing a site survey and layout, and treating termites. To get a construction site ready, blasting, test drilling, landfilling, leveling, earth-moving, excavating, land drainage, and other types of land preparation. Construction Work on preparing the site is important for any project. Before the main building work begins, a construction site needs to be set up.

There may be a lot of obstacles on the construction site, such as old buildings or structures, big trees, sloping ground, loose soil, and underground services. It could cause problems when building. For construction projects to go smoothly, the site must be ready for the building before work can begin.
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Types of Bridge Railings

The fundamental objective of a bridge railing system is to offer public safety along the length and edges of the bridge. This includes rerouting rogue automobiles back onto the road without posing a safety threat, as well as guaranteeing the safety of bicyclists and pedestrians. Although bridge railing systems do not provide structural support, they must be crashworthy. Bridge railing, as a result, differs from ordinary highway railing in that it is more rigid than flexible highway railing. Because it provides a progressive shift in the stiffness of the two railing systems, transition railing is utilized to connect the two railing systems. Railing design and needs have changed as vehicle size and power have changed.

The most recent standard for crash testing devices on the National Highway System is the AASHTO Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH). It entails diverting errant vehicles back onto the road without endangering the public’s health and guaranteeing the safety of bikers and pedestrians. Although the bridge’s railing systems do not offer structural support, they must be crashworthy. However, because it was intended for the standards at the construction time, much of the original bridge railing does not fulfill current code requirements. Because it is understood that repairing all of this railing would be prohibitively expensive, authorities frequently allow it to remain in place until needed.

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Different Types of Slabs Used in Construction and Their Uses, Advantages & Disadvantages

What is a Slab?
Slabs create flat, usually horizontal surfaces in building floors, roofs, bridges, and other constructions. Walls can support the slab, and reinforced concrete beams are normally cast monolithically with the slab, structural steel beams, columns, or the earth itself.

Different Types of Slabs Used in Construction:
1. Flat Slab:
Fig 1 Flat Slab
Fig 1: Flat Slab
Courtesy: civildigital.com

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Types of Doors Used in Building

What Is Door?
Doors are a crucial component of a building because they allow people to enter and exit. A door is defined as an openable barrier or a framework constructed of steel, aluminum, wood, or a combination of these materials that can be opened.
It is critical to select the ideal entrance for your home because the door is directly linked to the property’s security. The doors also enhance the elegance of the building.

Functions of Doors:

  • The structure includes doorways that provide entry within the building’s rooms.
  • The doors in the buildings act as a link between the various parts of the building’s interior.
  • It will also provide the chamber with ventilation and lighting.
  • It will aid in maintaining the rooms’ modesty.

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Gable Roof – Types, Advantages And Disadvantages

The roof is an important part of any building construction since it serves its uppermost covering. The structural element protects the entire structure from weather elements such as rain, frost, hail, etc. Various types of roofs have been invented and are utilized worldwide due to the inevitability of roofing in building construction. A Gable roof is one such essential style of roof.

What is Gable Roof?
A Gable roof has two sloping sides that peak at the top center. A pitched roof is another name for a gable roof. A gabled roof is chosen because it stops water from dropping from roof sheds and is less expensive than other roof types such as the gambrel or flat roof. Colors, shapes, and locations are used to customize gable roof designs. If you’re looking for a blend of decor, functionality, a modern design, and elegance, the gable roof is the way to go.

Gable roofs are a typical sight in many forms of architecture and give an excellent design of the roof covering throughout the world and snow regions. They have a beautiful, classical aspect and are commonly used in modern architecture.

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Stone Masonry – Materials, Uses and Classifications

What is Stone Masonry?
Stone masonry is the construction of stones cemented together with mortar. Where stones are plentiful, cutting and dressing them to the right shape makes it cost-effective to construct numerous building components such as walls, columns, tooting, arches, beams, etc. Piers, docks, dams, lighthouses, and other sea construction built with stone masonry, stronger, more robust, and more weather-resistant than brick masonry.

Materials Used for Stone Masonry:
The materials used for stone masonry are:

1. Stones:
The stones used in masonry must be robust, durable, and free of cracks, sand holes, and voids. The availability of the stone and the construction’s relevance decide the stone’s selection for a given project. Limestone, sandstone, granite, marble, laterite, and other stones are utilized in masonry construction.

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Difference between Spiral Column and Tied Column

A vertical portion with an effective length is three times the vertical member’s length. A column is a structure capable of sustaining compressive stresses with the minimum lateral dimension. From beams or slabs to footings or foundations, columns carry loads. In the case of frames and trusses, struts are slanted members that carry compressive loads. The pedestal is a vertical compression part less than three times the column’s length in effective length. Its lateral dimension is the smallest.

Columns carry axial loads; hence they are intended for compression. The columns can bend due to additional factors such as snow, wind, or other horizontal forces. The columns were designed to handle Axial Load and Bending.

Spiral Column:
Spiral Columns are normally cylindrical with continuous spiral bars wrapped around them. The spiral column’s helical reinforcement, also known as spiral reinforcement, is another name for the reinforcement employed in the spinal column. Spiral reinforcement helps to provide transverse support. In the case of a spiral column, the spiral restricts the concrete’s lateral expansion. Spiral columns are employed where flexibility is necessary or increased strength is cost-effective due to high loads.

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Different Types of Plywood and their Grades & Benefits

What is Plywood?
Plywood is a type of composite wood. It’s made using wood veneers taken from hardwoods, softwoods, and other types of trees. Although higher-grade plywood is pressed and heated in more complicated ways, these wood veneers are usually bonded together.

Since plywood has more sturdy surfaces than 24 logs, it is preferable. It is because plywood does not expand when moisture is applied across the board’s grain. Aside from that, plywood is resistant to cracking, shrinking, breaking, and warping due to the procedures it goes through. It’s usually placed in furniture like cabinets, cupboards, television units, dressing tables, center tables, dining tables, and in building projects like bracing, panels, and ornamental objects.

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