Awarded as the best online publication by CIDC

Civil Engineering Information

Different Types of Pavers

What is Pavers?
Pavers are slabs and blocks made of several materials, including brick (clay), concrete, flagstone, marble, travertine, porcelain, rubber, and even plastic, used to make driveways, patios, pools decks, and other structures. For such tasks, they can be a very suitable concrete option. Except for some stamped concrete, Pavers look nicer than conventional concrete slabs. Finally, when it comes to paver installation, you have the option of using interlocking or slabs.

They’re employed in various places throughout the house, notably outside. the most typical applications of pavers are:
Read More

Different Types of Roofing Sheets

A roofing sheet is a relatively modern type of roof covering, especially when compared to roofing materials such as thatch or roof tiles, which have been used for hundreds, if not thousands, of years. With the development of new roofing materials, the global roofing industry has progressed.

Different Types of Roofing Sheets:

1. Corrugated Roofing Sheets:
Fig 1 Corrugated Roofing Sheets
Fig 1: Corrugated Roofing Sheets:

Because of its shape, corrugated roofing is extremely durable. Because the screws for fastening penetrate through the peak of the ribs, these sheets require support strips to stabilize the material. The ribs and valleys’ curvature inhibits the screws from properly sealing in the valleys.

Flimsy and lightweight metals like aluminum can also be fitted to withstand decades of weather beating thanks to the particular corrugated design. Galvanized steel sheet is the most common corrugated sheet, and it is typically used as the base material. Garages, porches, and sheds can all benefit from these roofing sheets.

2. Aluminum Roofing Sheet:
Aluminum roofing sheet is a popular roofing material in many homes since it is long-lasting, energy-efficient, low-maintenance, and cost-effective. It is anti-corrosive, fire-resistant, simple to install, and can tolerate extreme weather conditions. Aluminum is a lightweight metal roofing material that helps to reduce structural load

Fig 2 Aluminum Roofing Sheets
Fig 2: Aluminum Roofing Sheets:

3. Asbestos Cement Roofing Sheet:
Fig 3 Asbestos Cement Roofing Sheets
Fig 3: Asbestos Cement Roofing Sheets:

This roof construction method employed asbestos fiber as a reinforcement material with cement. Asbestos fibers give the roof sheet body rigidity and stiffness, allowing it to maintain its size and shape without breaking.

4. Polycarbonate Roofing Sheet:
olycarbonate roofing sheets come in a variety of thicknesses and grades. They’re a lot lighter than steel, yet they’re strong and resistant to breaking and splits. They’re easy to work with and can be welded or fixed using screws and support rods. These sheets may also be cut easily using sharp-edged scissors and circular saws without using other tools or machines.

Fig 4 Polycarbonate Roofing Sheets
Fig 4: Polycarbonate Roofing Sheets:

Because polycarbonate roofing sheets are so sturdy and flexible, they allow for more imaginative design in their employed structures. One of the most advantageous properties of polycarbonate is that it allows maximum sunlight while blocking dangerous UV radiation. As a result, it’s the most effective way to allow in as much light as possible while avoiding harm. These sheets are commonly employed in large-scale commercial and industrial constructions.

5. Fiber Reinforced Plastic Roofing Sheet:
Fig- 5 -Fiber Reinforced Plastic Roofing Sheets
Fig 5: Fiber Reinforced Plastic Roofing Sheets:

Fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) is a thermosetting resin and fiber composite material. Fiber acts as a reinforcing material, providing rigidity and aiding in preserving the molded shape in this situation. Roofing sheets come in various colors and styles and can be flat or corrugated. The degree of opacity in these sheets is adjusted during manufacture, making it easier to choose the proper sheet for the quantity of sunlight required in the roofed space. They are anti-corrosive and simple to repair, resulting in lower maintenance costs.

6. Unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride Roofing Sheet:
Fig 6 Unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride Roofing Sheets
Fig 6: Unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride Roofing Sheets:

Because it is hard and unyielding, UPVC, or unplasticized polyvinyl chloride, varies from PVC in flexibility functions. UPVC does not have plasticizers added to its PVC substance, so it is not flexible, hence “unplasticized.”

It is also robust and low-maintenance, just like the PVC roofing sheet. It’s an excellent heat and energy insulator, and it’s frequently used as a roofing material to protect against corrosion and harsh temperatures. Because UPVC is robust and inflexible, it is difficult to destroy, making it excellent for enhancing the security of both residential and commercial facilities in the event of a robbery or break-in.

7. Plastic Roofing Sheet:
Fig 7 Plastic Roofing Sheets
Fig 7: Plastic Roofing Sheets:

PVC-based plastic roofing sheets are similar to bitumen-based roofing sheets in many ways. These plastic sheets are perfect for homeowners looking for a low-cost, lightweight roof sheet with a corrugated form factor. Because of its high light transmission, PVC roofing is frequently utilized as a low-cost alternative to roof lights, allowing you to flood an area with light. However, their low-cost PVC sheets are quite durable.

Plastic roofing sheets are frequently used as a substitute for polycarbonate roofing. It is due to the transparent finishes being available at a slightly lower cost and easier to install. PVC roofing only requires basic fixings and flashings to install, rather than a complete roofing system with glazing bars and other components. These sheets can combine with other materials to create a ceiling with a mix of opaque and translucent regions that enable light to pass through to the space below.

8. Bitumen Roofing Sheet:
Fig 8 Plastic Roofing Sheets
Fig 8: Plastic Roofing Sheets:

Bituminous roof sheets protect residential and commercial structures. As the name implies, these are rolls of layers that arrive at the job site. After that, they’re spread out on a firm surface. The most well-known type of sheet-based coating is a bituminous waterproofing film. Adjacent membranes are joined using the same hot adhesive.. The same air gun is also used to make joints between adjacent layers. The sheets are covered by roughly 100mm to create a waterproof connection.

9. Color Coated Roofing Sheet:
Sheets are coated with 55 percent aluminum, 43 percent zinc, and 1.5 percent silicon and mixed with high–quality colors that meet particular specifications in this form of roof sheet steel and another alloy. It is also available in a single color-coated version and a multicolor-coated version in various colors. This color coating provides the item a royal appearance while also providing the benefit of being non-corrosive.

Fig 9 Color Coated Roofing Sheets
Fig 9: Color Coated Roofing Sheets:

10. Galvanized Iron Roofing Sheet:
Fig 10 Galvanized Iron Roofing Sheets
Fig 10: Galvanized Iron Roofing Sheets:

The galvanized iron coating has a unique metallurgical structure that protects against abrasion and mechanical damage during shipment, installation, and service. Galvanized iron roofing sheets are designed to automatically protect any damaged areas of the sheet. The sheets serve as a cathode or sacrificial layer of protection for any small areas that may be damaged during shipping. As a result, the covering protects the full length of the sheets.

11. Rubber Roofing Sheet:
Secondary roofing material is usually gladded over the current roof to provide heat resistance and waterproofing to achieve a single sheet frame. Rubber roofing sheet is primarily used for rehabilitation. Ethylene Propylene Diane Monomer Rubber is employed in this sheet, which is taped and bonded on top of the existing surface.

Fig 11 Rubber Roofing Sheets
Fig 11: Rubber Roofing Sheets:

12. PUF Roofing Sheet:
Fig 12 PUF Roofing Sheets
Fig 12: PUF Roofing Sheets:

Polyurethane foam (PUF) is a type of polyurethane foam. Between two sheets of identical material and dimension, the foams are sandwiched. These sheets are utilized in applications where thermal insulation is important.

13. Bio-Composite Roofing Sheet:
A bio-composite is a material made up of a resin matrix and natural fiber reinforcing. Natural fibers were first used as reinforcement in polymeric composites due to environmental concerns and the high cost of synthetic fibers. Polymers from both renewable and nonrenewable sources make up the matrix phase. It protects the roofing sheets from environmental degradation and mechanical damage, holds the fibers together, and transfers the stresses.

14. Bamboo Roofing Sheet:
Fig 13 Bamboo Roofing Sheets
Fig 13: Bamboo Roofing Sheets

Bamboo roofing sheets are made from a renewable natural resource and can be used to cover dwellings, storage facilities, animal pens, and a variety of other temporary and permanent constructions. They are the same size as traditional corrugated roofing sheets and have the same standard specifications. Bamboo roofs are more soundproof in the rain and cooler in the sun than metal or plastic sheets. According to a study, cows in bamboo-roofed shelters produce more milk than those in corrugated zinc-roofed sheds due to the cooler atmosphere

Factors to Consider When Choosing Roofing Material:
1. Material Weight:
Some roofing materials are heavier than others. As a result, it’s an important element to address because it could compromise the structural integrity of your property. Make sure your house is physically sound enough to support the weight of your chosen roofing material.

2. Weather Condition:
The weather conditions in your area will determine the material of the roof sheet. The roofing material is also heat and weather-resistant.

3. Color Variety:
Choose a roofing material based on its hue if you want a premium appearance or one that blends in with your overall aesthetic.

4. Maintenance:
Consider how much time and work you can devote to roofing upkeep. It’s worth noting that other materials, such as metal, require far less maintenance, making them ideal for busy homes.

5. Overall Cost:
Your budget is the one that sets the tone right away. You can see which roofing materials are on the table for you and which ones aren’t by evaluating how much money you’re willing to spend. Keep in mind that more expensive materials aren’t always better.

Roofing Sheets are manufactured for various applications and are utilized in many types of roofing in residential and commercial construction. Each roofing sheet is unique in function and qualities, although they all serve different purposes. The type of roofing material used in your home or business building construction will determine the duration, maintenance costs, and durability of your roof. Before you go out and buy roofing sheets, make sure you’ve done your homework and know which ones are ideal for you.

1. What are the different types of roofing sheets? – Constro Facilitator. (2021, March 24). Constro Facilitator;
2. Visions, param. (2018, September 9). Different types of Roofing sheets. Different Types of Roofing Sheets. ~ PARAM VISIONS;
3. Mahajan, B. (2022, February 11). 20 Roof Sheet Types | Types Of Roof Sheets | Types Of Roofing Sheet | Best Roofing Sheets For House. Civiconcepts;
4. Roofing sheets?: Pros, Cons & Prices of Corrugated, Polycarbonate, Plastic, Metal Sheets. (2021, July 29). Housing News;
5. Types of Roofing Sheets | Roofing Megastore. (2018, July 19). Types of Roofing Sheets | Roofing Megastore;
6. The Different Types of Roofing Sheets and Their Functions – Parklane Commercial Corporation. (2021, May 5). Parklane Commercial Corporation;

Types of Beams Used in Construction

A beam is a structural element or member that largely transfers loads placed along its axis to its supports, such as walls, columns, foundations, and so on, with bending being the primary way of deflection.

Various types of beams are employed in the construction of buildings and structures. Vertical loads, shear stresses, and bending moments can all be absorbed by these horizontal structural members. Beams distributed loads throughout their length to their terminals, including walls, columns, foundations, and other structures.
Read More

Types of False Ceiling

A false ceiling differs from a traditional ceiling made of decorative materials such as gypsum board, PVC panels, and tiles, among other things. There is an empty gap between the ordinary ceiling and the false ceiling. The fake ceiling is a great material to use in halls and auditoriums to improve soundproofing. Metal wires are used to secure the artificial ceiling from the original ceiling. When the floor height is more than 10 feet, the space between the ceiling and the fake ceiling extends up to one foot. The artificial ceiling is a metal grid supported by the original ceiling and suspended.

The artificial ceiling not only improves the room’s aesthetic but also conceals the room’s heavy wiring, pipes, and insulations. A false ceiling is utilized in many multi-story offices and business buildings to offer an HVAC system that distributes clean air to the space. This system is readily repaired by simply removing the ceiling panel in the affected region and reinstalling it. The fake ceiling technology is less expensive and easier to install.

Read More

Marble Flooring- Types, Advantages & Disadvantages

What is Marble Flooring?
Marble is a hard, porous stone with a high water absorption rate created naturally from calcite, dolomite, or limestone. Due to its natural occurrence, marble comes in a wide spectrum of colors and textures. No two slabs of marble are alike, which is why they are so valuable. Marble has always been and will continue to be a special feature to any home. The material exudes beauty and value, from slick marble worktops to cool marble flooring. Because of its creamy hue and remarkable grain patterns, marble flooring becomes a more beautiful and identifiable natural building element.

Marble flooring has numerous advantages, including ease of cleaning, a wide range of options, versatility, increased property value, and increased floor hardness or long-term durability. It is commonly applied in all types of commercial and residential structures. It’s utilized to make high–quality everyday items like bathtubs and washbasins, as well as keepsakes like statues..

Read More

What are Grasscrete, its types, and its uses

Grasscrete is a reinforced cellular cast-on-site concrete in which natural grass can be grown or gravel can be filled into the cavities. It is a green solution that aids in the creation of aesthetically beautiful and environmentally sustainable urban environments. It is a green alternative that provides an impermeable surface for emergency vehicle access, parking, and water management. Concrete is poured over styrene void formers in a simple technique to make grasscrete. It’s a cellular reinforced concrete system cast on site with voids generated by formers. The former is essentially a piece of equipment or a mould that creates spaces in concrete that can later be filled with porous materials like stone, gravel, or plants.

Read More

Types of Porch used for Home

What is a Porch?
The porch is the first thing visitors notice as they approach your home. The structure is exterior to the building’s walls; however, it may be surrounded by frames extending from the main structure, such as walls, columns, or screens. As a result, the porch enhances the visual appearance of the structure. Therefore, a porch is vital for maximizing the functionality of a home.

As people approach your home, the porch is the first thing they see. The porch sets your home’s atmosphere. There are many different porches, ranging from modest and straightforward to wraparound porches; all have something unique to offer.
Read More

Damp Proof Course (DPC)

Damp Proof Course or DPC is the protective layer applied to prevent the rising of moisture to the walls from the ground due to capillary action. It is usually 2.5 cm thick with a ratio of rich cement concrete 1:1.5:3 or 2 cm thick with cement mortar 1:2 mixed with standard waterproofing material. It is provided from the plinth level to the entire width of the plinth wall, and the quantities are calculated in square meters (length x breadth). Usually, DPC is not provided at the sills of doors and verandah openings, for which deductions are made. In most cases, 1 kg of cem-seal, Impermo, or another definitive waterproofing compound is used per bag of cement.

Read More

The Use of Aluminium in Construction

Aluminum is commonly employed in construction because of its inherent advantages of lightness and corrosion resistance. Since 1886, aluminum has been utilized extensively as an industrial metal. The present smelting method was invented at this time. When compared to metals like lead, copper, and bronze, which have been used for thousands of years, this suggests the metal has been available for a shorter time.

This material is frequently utilized as a substitute for steel in situations where its unique qualities are critical and worth paying for. Their unique characteristics are their lightweight and sparkling appearance. Aluminum usage in the globe is estimated to be in the range of 20 million tonnes per year. Aluminum is utilized in a variety of applications, including external facades, roofs and walls, windows and doors, stairwells, railings, and shelves, among others.

Read More

Types of Building Construction

Construction is usually used to refer to any project in the field. Building a road, for example, is a type of construction. On the other hand, building typically refers to the construction of a structure such as a home or business. The same concept can be applied to the process’s output. The construction of a team could range from a skyscraper to a parking lot.

On the other hand, a building is almost always a closed structure with walls and a roof. Furthermore, many engineers will use the term construction to refer to the entire project, from design to completion. Building refers only to the phase of actually erecting the structure in this framework.

In short, construction is typically a broader term than building. Drafting, measurement, and other tools used in the overall project are examples of construction tools. While basic construction tools are essentially the same, more advanced items may cover a broader range of tasks.

Read More

Ask a question