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Civil Engineering Information

Foundation Settlement – Causes, Types and Preventive Measures

The lowest level of a building is its base, also called its foundation. So, the structure’s load (or loads) can be safely transferred to the ground below. The stability of a building’s foundation is one of the most important parts of how well it works. A good foundation ensures the ground is kept from what it can handle. Even though it can, the ground sinks under the weight. The amount of the settlement is in a good range.

Additionally, many factors, such as soil type and how the foundation is constructed, can affect the total amount of foundation settlement. Foundations built on bedrock move very little. On the other hand, foundations in other kinds of soil, like clay, may sink much more. Since it was built in the early 1930s, the Mexico City Palace of Fine Arts has settled more than 15 feet (4.5m) into the clay soil on which it is built. On the other hand, foundation settlement is usually limited to millimeters or fractions of an inch. When a building’s foundation settles quickly, it can cause damage to the building.

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Types of Glass Used in Construction

Glass, ever since it was first crafted around 500 BC, has fascinated humans. Glass has come a long way since it was once believed to have magical abilities. It’s been around for quite some time and is still used because of how adaptable and long-lasting it is. With the advent of modern architecture at the turn of the 20th century, cities became urban factories where concrete, glass, and steel were mass-produced. This philosophy was useful in meeting the demand for homes among the expanding middle class. Buildings made of glass and steel have come to represent progress in many countries because of the positive connotations that its inhabitants associate with wealth and luxury.

What is Glass?
Glass is the oldest and the most elegant material used in construction and other fields. In most cases, glass is used because it improves the aesthetic value of the building. Ever since it was first discovered, people have found glass to be an intriguing substance. Glass is a tough, see-through substance. Glass is made by heating inorganic materials like quartz or sand. When creating a striking visual effect and a novel interior layout, Glass is the material of choice for many architects. When it comes to building materials, glass is unparalleled in its adaptability.

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All You Need to Know About Roof Vents

What is a Roof Vent?
A roof vent, which is brief for roof ventilation, is a system that allows for enough airflow in the attic. These are an essential part of the roofing system. Its major purpose is to prevent the roof from overheating in the summer and moisture buildup in the winter. Regarding health concerns and structural damage, improper roof vent installation can be very costly. Ice dams, mold, and an astronomically high power bill are some of the repercussions of improper roof vent installation.

How Does Roof Ventilation Work?
Proper attic roof ventilation is necessary to avoid condensation in your attic due to overheating. An attic or roof space needs to be aired, and the two most popular methods are:

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How Is Cement Replaced In The Modern World?

Portland cement can be replaced or supplemented with finely divided materials known as “alternative cementitious materials.” Concrete’s technical properties and/or cost are improved and decreased due to their utilization. Fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag, condensed silica fume, limestone dust, cement kiln dust, and natural or manufactured pozzolans are a few examples of these materials. The cement industry is boosting the manufacturing of blended portland cement using industrial by-products, including blast-furnace slags and coal combustion fly ashes, to reduce CO2 emissions. Even though burning fossil fuels is responsible for most CO2 emissions, this only accounts for 50% of the cement industry. The other 50% cannot be eliminated by improving efficiency or switching to alternative energy sources because it is inherent in the chemical reaction that yields calcium carbonate (CaCO3), the main ingredient in cement. Because of this, no cement can be made without releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. As a result, efforts to decarbonize cement manufacturing focus on capturing CO2 rather than reducing the quantity of CO2 in concrete mixtures. However, the high-quality byproducts are few, which calls for an alternative.

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What Are The Different Types of Sand Used In Construction?

Sand is an important building resource but must be bought with great care and attention to detail. It is a fine aggregate that has several applications, including but not limited to: concrete, backfill, gardening, surface treatments, and preventing the accumulation of snow and ice. Most people must understand that not all land is the same and that some are better for certain uses than others. It is important to know what kind of sand is best for building because it comes in different forms, making it good for different kinds of buildings.

What is Sand?
Sand is a type of granular substance made up of tiny fragments of rock and mineral. It is formed through weathering, erosion, and the breakdown of larger rocks over time. The particles that makeup sand range in size, typically falling within the range of 0.0625 to 2 millimeters in diameter. The composition of sand can vary depending on its source, but it is commonly made up of quartz, which is a hard and durable mineral. Other minerals such as feldspar, mica, shell fragments, and various organic materials may also be present in sand. The color of sand can vary, ranging from white to shades of yellow, brown, and even black, depending on the minerals present.

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Different Types of Plaster Finishes

What is Plaster?
Plaster is a building material covering rough surfaces such as walls, columns, ceilings, and other architectural components with a thin coat of plastic mortar to create a smooth, long-lasting surface. Plaster is a polymeric material that has been coated (i.e., mortar). Plastering is the term for this procedure. Rendering is the process of plastering an exposed surface on the outside.

Mortar is a light mixture of binders (lime or cement) and fillers (sand or broken stones). Good plaster needs to have a proper bond with the masonry surface. Plaster is made from a dry powder combined with water to create a hard but effective paste before being placed on a surface. Ancient civilizations used mud as plastering to create long-lasting, weather-resistant constructions.
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Soil Cement- Composition, Types, Advantages, And Disadvantages

Soil cement is a composite material composed of soil, cement, and water that is used to create a strong and durable construction material. The process involves mixing soil, cement, and water in proportions and compacting the mixture to form a solid mass. The result is a strong and stable material that can be used for various construction applications, such as roadways, foundations, and building walls.

The use of soil cement dates back to the early 20th century, and it has since become a popular construction material due to its low cost and ease of use. The exact ratio of soil to cement to water varies with each application and the qualities of the soil. The resulting material is highly durable and resistant to weathering and erosion, making it an excellent choice for construction projects in various environments.
 Soil Cement
Fig: Soil Cement
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What is Culvert – Materials, Design, and Types

A culvert is a structure designed to allow the passage of water, such as a stream or drainage, under a road, railway, or similar obstruction. It is an essential component of the transportation infrastructure, preventing flooding, maintaining water flow, and ensuring the integrity of the road or railway above. Culverts are typically constructed using durable concrete, steel, or plastic materials. They come in various shapes and sizes, depending on the specific requirements of the site and the volume of water that needs to be conveyed. Common culvert shapes include round, box, elliptical, and pipe arch.

The design and installation of culverts consider factors such as the anticipated water flow, the terrain, and the environmental considerations of the surrounding area. Proper design ensures that the trench can withstand the hydraulic forces exerted by the flowing water while maintaining structural integrity.

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What is a Manhole- Function, Construction, Materials, and Types of Manhole

A manhole is an opening in a street or sidewalk that provides access to an underground utility or infrastructure, typically a sewer, storm drain, or utility vault. It is usually covered with a heavy metal lid that can be removed to allow entry for maintenance or inspection purposes. Manholes are designed to provide a safe and convenient way for workers to access underground systems for repairs, cleaning, or installation of new infrastructure. The term “manhole” is derived from the fact that historically, the openings were large enough for a person to enter. Still, nowadays, many manholes are smaller and may only allow equipment or specialized personnel to enter.
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Differences Between Cinder Blocks And Concrete Blocks

When burning wood or coal to heat houses was the main way to do it, there were a lot of cinders. In the 1850s, this overproduction made a new block type. A normal house could make a lot of cinder waste in one winter, making it a cheaper aggregate. Concrete has been used for hundreds of years. Romans, Greeks, and Egyptians were the first to use simple concrete blocks. Historians even think that some of the pyramids were built with simple concrete.

Romans used concrete mortar as early as 200 AD. To make concrete, the Romans used local ingredients. Roman construction needed strong materials during this time, so concrete was a great choice for their infrastructure and buildings. In 1824, a British cement maker named Joseph Aspdin got a patent for modern concrete. Aspdin came up with the recipe for cement, which we still use today. The product he developed is called Portland cement. Harmon S. Palmer made the first hollow concrete block in the U.S. in 1890. By 1900, Palmer had gotten a patent for his idea. These concrete blocks were so heavy that one person couldn’t carry them alone.

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