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Civil Engineering Information

Types of Stones used in the Construction

What are Stones?
Stones are made up of two or more minerals that make up rocks, which make up the earth’s crust and have no specific shape or chemical composition. In regions where it is naturally accessible, stones are one of the most significant building materials in stone masonry civil engineering. The stones used in building construction should be strong, robust, and tough, with no weathered soft spots of material, fractures, or other faults that would reduce their strength and longevity. Quarrying from large solid rocks is used to obtain stones for construction.

Uses of Stones:
Stones are used in various applications in construction, such as:

  • Masonry, comprising pillars, swags, entrances, and decorative embellishments.
  • Tiles and cladding for the floor and walls.
  • Surrounds for fires, stairwells, and other decorative components
  • Aggregate.
  • Ballast.
  • Concrete, mortar, cement, asphalt, and some bricks contain it.
  • Paving.
  • Roofing materials.
  • Work surfaces and tabletops in the kitchen.
  • Countertops, shower trays, and basins for the bathroom.

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New Rule and Regulations Affecting Construction

A set of regulations that describe the norm for created things such as buildings and non-building structures is known as a building regulation, building control, or building code. To receive planning clearance, which is normally granted by a local council, a building must adhere to the code. Each municipality and urban development body in India has its own set of building codes that must be followed for all construction within their jurisdiction.

Fig 1 Bureau of Indian Standards logo
Fig 1: Bureau of Indian Standards logo

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Different Types of Rollers Used in Construction Work

Rollers are huge construction machines that compress earth, concrete, gravel, crushed stone, or asphalt on construction sites surfaces. They are extensively utilized in road building and compact foundations on major construction sites and rely on their weight, combined with other mechanisms such as vibration and kneading, to compress the surface. There are different types of rollers ideal for different types of compaction.

The rolling method ensures that foundations are properly compacted and that materials are compact and do not come free, and road rollers are well-known in the building business. The road roller has several components, including diesel engines a canopy to protect the driver. This drum can be either vibratory or static, a compaction meter to measure the level of compaction, a water system, and tires.
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Different Types of Traps Used in Plumbing

What are Traps in Plumbing?
A trap is a mechanism that prevents sewer gases from entering the structure. The traps hold a little water and are situated underneath or within a plumbing fixture. The holding water provides a water seal, which prevents foul gases from drain pipes from returning to the structure. As a result, traps are installed in all plumbing fixtures such as sinks, washbasins, bathtubs, and toilets.

Drain lines are designed to drain water from any water-using device or fixture in the home. It is connected to the main sewer system. As a result, there should be a trap in the pipe that can be used to seal the drain. A net is installed in the gully trap to keep debris out. The water seal’s height in the gully trap is 60 and 70 mm.

The plumbing traps are of high quality. A bent pipe is employed to create a water seal in any trap. You may have seen floor traps, alley traps, p-traps, and other design traps in your house plumbing fixtures.
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Gypsum Board – Types, Uses, Advantages & Disadvantages

The home-building and remodeling industry has seen many construction materials utilized to improve a building’s functioning and aesthetic appeal. Gypsum board is one such product.

What is a Gypsum Board?
A collection of panel goods is referred to as “gypsum board.” These have a non-combustible gypsum core with paper surfacing front, back, and long edges. The term “gypsum panel products” refers to the various gypsum boards used in building and construction. The basis of all gypsum board products is gypsum, but the surface can be wrapped in various materials, including paper and fiberglass matting.

Drywall, wallboard, and plasterboard are used to describe gypsum boards. They differ from other panel-type shelters, and road and building products, such as plywood, hardboard, and fiberboard, due to their non-combustible core and paper facers. Gypsum wallboard creates a continuous surface suited for various interior design projects, both residential and commercial when their seams and fastener heads are covered with a joint compound system.
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