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Civil Engineering Information

Uses of Plastic While Building A Home

INTRODUCTION
The word Plastic is derived from the Greek word plastikos meaning capable of being shaped or moulded. They comprise of wide range of semi-synthetic or fully synthetic organic compounds that are malleable, durable and cheap. In the case of developed economies, one-third of plastic is used in packaging and also in buildings such as plumbing or vinyl siding or in plumbing. Plastics have evolved from using natural plastic materials such as chewing gum to chemically modified raw materials such as natural rubber, collagen, galalite, nitrocellulose. It is then finally transformed into fully synthetic molecules such as synthetic molecules bakelite, epoxy, polyvinyl chloride, etc. In the Middle Ages, cattle horns were used as windows for lanterns, while expanded polystyrene was used for buildings isolation which Dow Chemical invented in 1954. As times are changing uses of plastics are being modified keeping in mind the properties, advantages, disadvantages and uses.

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Vertical Green Building – A step towards Sustainable Development

Green building is a practice of construction which uses the processes responsible for environment friendly and efficient in resource usage through the life cycle of building starting from design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation and till deconstruction process. In recent years, green architecture has attracted the attention of many contemporary architects and designers in the world. The aim of this concept is to increase green space in urban areas and greater efficiency in buildings especially in cities. It is a step for the survival of human interaction and environment which is derived from the concept of sustainable development in harmony with environmental compatibility to meet the needs of people.

Need for Green Building:
Maximum use of fossil energy and explosive growth of greenhouse gases are the main cause of global warming today. On the other hand, the increasing population of the world as a result of indiscriminate construction has faced cities with serious problems of air pollution. With the population growth, increasing development of cities and subsequent destruction of green spaces has increased the need to find ways to coexist with nature which will conserve energy, prevent land pollution, and reduce energy consumption. Now-a-days vertical housing has become the solution for fulfilling the housing need in urban areas. According to the World Green Building Council’s report, buildings contribute to 33% of carbon dioxide emission, 17% of water consumption, 25% of wood consumption, 30-40%of raw material consumption, and 40-50% of energy consumption in its construction process and operation. Therefore based on these facts, an environmentally sound construction and development should be considered to reduce the energy consumption. So the Green Building concept is being a trusted way to solve this issue. It is said that the building construction companies produce the second largest amount of greenhouse gases (30-40%) and demolition waste. The major energy consumption in building comes from modern lifestyle equipment like air-conditioning system, cooler, water heating to provide comfort to building occupants etc. These all add to pollution. Occupant activities also generate large amount of solid waste and water waste as well. As compared to a regular structure, a green building uses less energy, less water and other natural resources which create less waste and greenhouse gas and provides a healthy living place for people.

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Houses Made of Shipping Containers

Introduction
A shipping container home is a structure made of steel shipping containers, which are large, reusable and are used to transport goods. Shipping containers come in two sizes: 20 ft. × 8 ft. and 40 ft. x 8 ft. The 20-foot shipping containers have 160 square feet of living space, while the 40-foot cargo containers have 320 square feet. These containers can be used as a solo home or personal office or combined to create a multilevel residence.

Shipping container homes, along with tiny houses, RVs, and silos, are becoming increasingly popular as potential homeowners look for alternatives to the traditional multi-bedroom house. Because of the strength, durability, affordability, and sustainability of recyclable materials, shipping container homes and structures are becoming more common in our day. These are practically universally available, and these are significantly cheaper near ports.

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How to Repair Roads?

Asphalt will deteriorate almost quickly, causing road distresses to appear, regardless of how well a road is designed. Traffic, dampness, and a lack of preventive maintenance treatment are all factors that speed up the deterioration of a road. Depending on the method used, mending a pothole on the road might be simple or complex. In some circumstances, dumping a mixture into a pothole, compacting it with a shovel, and turning away is a simple procedure. In other cases, pulverizing the pothole and laying down new pavement may be necessary. The sort of asphalt repair procedure required is determined by the nature and severity of the damages to an asphalt road. It is important to note that the longer it is taken to repair damaged asphalt, the worse the damage will become. Extensive damage is also more expensive since it necessitates more difficult repair methods, including removal, replacement, or resurfacing. As a general guideline, it is essential to inspect asphalt road for damage once a week or once a month, depending on how much traffic it receives. Parking lots with a lot of traffic will undoubtedly require more upkeep than those with less traffic. Thus, it is necessary to implement procedures as per the hole sizes along with their nature.
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Advanced Construction Techniques

Introduction
Many new inventions are being used nowadays in the construction industry, including different materials in the construction world, additional equipment, different types of machinery, etc. In this competitive world, it has become utmost necessary to cope with the neighboring countries in terms of infrastructure growth. All these modern techniques help reducing extra expenses, cut labor charges, reducing transportation fees, long life of materials, and many more. Some of these construction innovations are discussed below.
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