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How can restrained joints resist thrust forces in pressurized pipelines?

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The unbalanced thrust forces in pressurized pipelines cause the line to move and joints to separate unless the unbalanced force is counterbalanced by some means such as thrust blocks.

Restrained joints can be adopted to resist the thrust forces. The mechanism of restrain joint involves gripping and locking the pipe joints together to avoid axial movement and joint separation. For the unbalanced thrust forces, they are distributed to the surrounding soils in such as way that the bearing area is assumed to decrease linearly from the location of thrust forces to the end of restrained pipes. The soil bearing against the pipelines and soil friction provide resistance to movement of pipelines.

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This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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