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Why does ground heaving sometimes occur during pipe-jacking?

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It is commonly recognized that ground settlement is one of the major concern in pipe jacking operation. However, engineer should also pay attention to the problem of ground heaving during grouting work of pipe-jacking. For instance, if excessive slurry or grout pressure is applied so as to exceed the overburden pressure, ground heaving would result. Alternatively, if the ground contains loose soils with high porosity, the same phenomenon also occurs. Proper control on the applied pressure and viscosity of grout/slurry is necessary to prevent such occurrence.

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This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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