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The rate of cutting through soils is faster than that of cutting through boulders for pipe-jacking machine. As such, when pipe-jacking machine enters a region of mixed ground with soils and boulders, the machine has the tendency to move towards the direction of soft soils because of the difference of rate of advancement of pipe-jacking machine for soils and boulders. Consequently, migration of soft soils occur which contributes to ground settlement. The degree of settlement is dependent of the depth of soil cover, soil property and the size of boulders.
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