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There are two main distinct advantages of pipe ramming:
(i) Settlement and heaving of existing ground.
Where a pipe have to be installed under an existing railway or heavily-trafficked highway, it is almost impossible to install the pipes by open excavation. In particular, if the pipes to be installed are of shallow depth, the use of some trenchless methods (e.g. pipe jacking and heading) may cause considerable ground settlement because the soil loss within shallow zone would induce larger settlement. As such, the use of pipe ramming could resolve this concern. Pipe ramming is a displacement method which generally would not result in ground loss. For open-ended steel casing, the soils inside the pipe are not removed until the entire casing is installed in place.
This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.
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