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What are the potential advantages of segmental tunneling when compared with hand-shield pipe-jacking?

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In segmental tunneling, the jacks are installed at the shield so that it is not necessary to install thrust wall at the jacking pit. This provides the opportunity for smaller size of the pit because of the absence of thrust wall. Moreover, as the jacking operation involves the jacking of small length of segmental liner plates and hence smaller force would be required for pipe jacking when compared with traditional pipe jacking (jacks at jacking pits) where the jacking force is needed to overcome long lengths of pipe drives. On the other hand, the use of segmental tunneling offers better control in alignment because the steering operation could be performed at the shield.

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This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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