Should closed-end or open-end pipes be used in pipe ramming?

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It is more common to adopt open-end pipes in pipe ramming because it is not readily to undergo surface heaving or pipe deflection when compared with closed-end pipes. Moreover, the use of open-end pipes requires lower ramming force.

Closed-end pipes are only used in the following conditions:


(i) Ground with poor self-support so that inflow of soils inside the pipes would render ground settlement and loss of support to utility services.

(ii) Small size of pipes.

This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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