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It is more common to adopt open-end pipes in pipe ramming because it is not readily to undergo surface heaving or pipe deflection when compared with closed-end pipes. Moreover, the use of open-end pipes requires lower ramming force.
Closed-end pipes are only used in the following conditions:
(ii) Small size of pipes.
This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.