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In Hong Kong the angle of fill slope is about 30o– 40o to the horizontal while the angle of cut slope is about 50o– 60oto the horizontal. To protect the slope from surface erosion and water infiltration, it is covered with impermeable hard cover like chunam and shotcrete. Chunam is a mixture of soil, cement and lime and is usually applied in two layers with the thickness of each layer of 25mm. For shotcrete, mesh reinforcement may be provided inside it to enhance tensile strength of cover, thereby reducing the risk of tensile cracking of slope cover.
U-channels are provided on the crest and toe of slope to divert and collect the rain falling on slope surface. Catchpits are provided at the intersection or junctions of drains to avoid possible splashing of water.