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What are the functions of drainage system and protective covers of slopes?

In Hong Kong the angle of fill slope is about 30o– 40o to the horizontal while the angle of cut slope is about 50o– 60oto the horizontal. To protect the slope from surface erosion and water infiltration, it is covered with impermeable hard cover like chunam and shotcrete. Chunam is a mixture of soil, cement and lime and is usually applied in two layers with the thickness of each layer of 25mm. For shotcrete, mesh reinforcement may be provided inside it to enhance tensile strength of cover, thereby reducing the risk of tensile cracking of slope cover.


Weepholes are normally provided in slopes to prevent building up of water pressure in the slope and subsequently this causes cracking and disintegration of slope cover. For gentle slope, hydroseeding may be used and geofabric may be introduced on slope surface to guard against possible surface erosion.

U-channels are provided on the crest and toe of slope to divert and collect the rain falling on slope surface. Catchpits are provided at the intersection or junctions of drains to avoid possible splashing of water.


This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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Kanwarjot Singh

Kanwarjot Singh is the founder of Civil Engineering Portal, a leading civil engineering website which has been awarded as the best online publication by CIDC. He did his BE civil from Thapar University, Patiala and has been working on this website with his team of Civil Engineers.

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One comment on "What are the functions of drainage system and protective covers of slopes?"

M.Ramesh says:

concrete repair purpose

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