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Student Corner

Factors Affecting Strength And Workability Of Concrete

Strength and workability are both dominating factors in the making of concrete. Strength can be increased by increasing cement content but this in fact reduces the workability. Moreover,the water content can be increased for better workability, but this affects the strength. Hence,a perfect balance is to be maintained for both strength and workability. Furthermore, besides cement and water content, some other factors contribute greatly, which will be discussed as follows.


It consists of various items of work in the form of a statement depicting quantities, description and rate per unit. It is used to define the quality and quantity of works to be carried out by main contractor for completing work. It is made in tabular format and is mainly used for inviting tender and supplied to contractors to fill up the rates. On receipt of tenders the rates are compared and decision is made regarding the work. It is prepared by quantity surveyors and building estimators to be handed over to contractor.


Calculation Of Materials For Plastering

Here, we will be calculating the quantities of materials i.e., cement and sand, required for plastering. We will take 100 sq. metre area of wall and calculate accordingly. Moreover, some extra percentages are taken on volume for other construction works during the process.

Assuming thickness of plastering,
Inside = 12 mm
Outside = 20 mm
Ceiling = 6 mm

Mortar Calculation in Brickwork

Size of brick with Mortar = 20 cm × 10 cm × 10 cm

No. of bricks required per 1 m3 brickwork = 1 / (0.2 × 0.1 × 0.1) = 500 nos.

No. of bricks for 10 m3 brickwork = 500 × 10 = 5000 nos.
Size of brick without Mortar = 19 cm × 9 cm × 9 cm
Actual volume of 5000 bricks = 5000 × (0.19 × 0.09 × 0.09) = 5000 × 0.001539 = 7.695 m3
approx 7.7 m3


Common Abbreviation Used in Civil Engineering

The common abbreviation used in civil engineering are as follows:

A.A.S.H.T.O – American Association of State Highway Transport
A.B – Anchor Bolt Or Asbestos Board
A.C.I – American concrete institute.
A.R.E.A – American Railway Engineering Association.
A.S.C – Allowable stress of concrete.
A.S.T.M – American Society for Testing Materials
AC – Asphalt Concrete
AE – Assistant Engineer
APM – Assistant Project Manager