Earthquakes are one of the most devastating forces on the planet. The seismic waves that travel through the ground can demolish buildings, kill people, and cost billions of dollars in damage and restoration. According to the National Earthquake Information Center, there are over 20,000 earthquakes every year on average, including 16 major disasters. The damage was caused by the collapse of buildings with people inside, as in previous earthquakes, prompting the development of earthquake-resistant constructions.
Constructions intended to withstand earthquakes are known as earthquake-resistant structures. While no structure can be completely safe from earthquake damage, earthquake-resistant construction aims to build structures that perform better than their conventional equivalents during seismic activity. Building rules state that earthquake-resistant constructions must be able to withstand the greatest earthquake with a reasonable chance of occurring at their site. There are now various design philosophies in earthquake engineering that use experimental results, computer models, and historical earthquake observations to provide the requisite performance for the seismic threat at the location of interest. In this article, we will deal with numerous techniques that can help improve a structure.