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What is Plum Concrete? How to Prepare Plum Concrete?

What is Plum Concrete?
Plum concrete, also known as cyclopean concrete and rubble concrete, combines wet concrete and a plum (large size, strong, clean natural coarse aggregate or boulders of roughly 300 mm or larger). Plum makes up about 30–40% of the overall weight of the poured-in-place material.

U.S. technical specifications recommend a ratio of 60 percent plain concrete to 40 percent big stones when building with Cyclopean concrete. On day 28, the plain concrete used in this project must have a minimum resistance of 180 kg/cm2, and its ingredients must be thoroughly saturated before being mixed. The stone used must be in line with ASTM standards, and the blueprints will determine the exact dimensions for the foundation.

Plum’s presence in concrete lowers the required hydration heat since it eliminates the need for an excessive amount of cement while maintaining the material’s strength. Constructions of gravity dams, embankments, filling of deep or uneven terrain, foundations, etc., are all common applications for plum concrete. It’s a cheap replacement for regular cement.

Plum Concrete Courtesy
Fig 1: Plum Concrete

Properties of Plum Concrete:

How to Prepare Plum Concrete?
Preparation of Plum Concrete Courtesy
Fig 2: Preparation of Plum Concrete

Plum concrete can either be created by adding the plum to the concrete mix during the mixing of concrete or by distributing the plums over the layer of standard concrete and then spreading another layer of concrete. Special attention must be made while inserting the plums into the concrete to prevent air traps. The basic steps of making plum concrete are as follows:

Difference between Plain Concrete and Plum Concrete:
The simplest sort of concrete is plain cement concrete. It is created by mixing basic building materials like cement, fine aggregates, and coarse aggregates. In contrast, plum concrete is a type in which large to very large stones are used as filler material rather than aggregates.

The expansion of the large stones in the concrete mixture thus serves as the primary distinction between plum concrete and plain cement concrete. It functions as a filler by reducing the need for small aggregates, which are frequently expensive. It contributes to reducing the cost of concrete in this way.

Specifications Of Plum Concrete:

Applications of Plum Concrete:

Advantages of Plum Concrete:

Disadvantages of Plum Concrete:

When a substantial amount of concrete is required below a structure’s foundation or footing to create a level surface for the equally distributed application of load, plum concrete is employed. Plum concrete has proven to be a cost-effective option for large-scale construction where mass concreting is required.

A filler material made of medium to large stones is used in plum concrete, a form of concrete. The cost of concrete can be decreased by adding large-sized filler stones without compromising the strength or functionality of the structure.

1. “Plum Concrete.” Plum Concrete – Designing Buildings,, and Accessed 14 Aug. 2022.
2. “What Is the Difference between Plum Concrete and Plain Concrete.Docx?” Scribd,, Accessed 14 Aug. 2022.
3. “What Is Plum Concrete?/ All about Plum Concrete.” What Is Plum Concrete?/ All about Plum Concrete. ~ PARAM VISIONS,, 22 July 2022,
4. “Plum Concrete Methodology | Plum Cement Concrete.” Plum Concrete Methodology | Plum Cement Concrete,, Accessed 14 Aug. 2022.

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Kanwarjot Singh

Kanwarjot Singh is the founder of Civil Engineering Portal, a leading civil engineering website which has been awarded as the best online publication by CIDC. He did his BE civil from Thapar University, Patiala and has been working on this website with his team of Civil Engineers.

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