Construction is usually used to refer to any project in the field. Building a road, for example, is a type of construction. On the other hand, building typically refers to the construction of a structure such as a home or business. The same concept can be applied to the process’s output. The construction of a team could range from a skyscraper to a parking lot.
On the other hand, a building is almost always a closed structure with walls and a roof. Furthermore, many engineers will use the term construction to refer to the entire project, from design to completion. Building refers only to the phase of actually erecting the structure in this framework.
In short, construction is typically a broader term than building. Drafting, measurement, and other tools used in the overall project are examples of construction tools. While basic construction tools are essentially the same, more advanced items may cover a broader range of tasks.
While the distinctions between building and construction are not explicitly stated in their definitions, the standard uses in the field are. Understanding these concepts can help you communicate more effectively.
Before getting to know about the types of building construction, it is important to know about the building construction process. The building construction process consists of 2 steps: Pre-construction steps and During Construction Steps, and these steps are different in different types of construction. Within these, several steps are included, and each one is different from the other, depicting how crucial it is for a planner to go through each step with utmost detail. Also, it is better to leave some scope for further modification at every stage in construction so that the entire structure is not required to rebuild again. This will save energy, money, and time.
Fig 1: Construction types
Courtesy: Building Code Trainer
Types of Building Construction
Some of the types of building construction are –
- Construction Type I: Fire-Resistant – Any structure taller than 75 feet falls into this category. This rule applies to all high-rise residential and commercial buildings. When it comes to fire-resistant ratings, the walls, partitions, columns, floors, and roofs of this form of construction are the most non-combustible. Apartment buildings, workplaces, and hotels all fall within this category. Because of their height, these structures are frequently simple to notice, and they are made up of protective steel and poured concrete. These structures are built to resist high temperatures for an extended period without collapsing. While these elements boost the durability of these structures, they also increase construction costs.
- Construction Type II: Non-Combustible – Non-combustible buildings are comparable to fire-resistant buildings as they have non-combustible walls, partitions, columns, floors, and roofs. However, they have lower fire resistance and are less resistant to the impacts and spread of fire than Type I. This type is called “non-combustible” not because of its fire resistance but because of the amount of fuel it produces. This sort of construction is widespread in newer school buildings. These structures usually have a metal floor and roof, as well as masonry or tilt-slab walls. Even though these structures generally have fire suppression systems, they are generally not covered with fire-resistant coatings and are prone to collapsing.
- Construction Type III: Ordinary – Type III buildings, also known as brick-and-joist structures, have either tilt-slap or reinforced masonry walls, which are non-combustible materials. Some of the internal structural parts (frames, floors, ceilings, and so on) are composed of wood or flammable materials that are not fire-resistant. This type of construction can be used on both old and new structures. Traditionally framed roofs are typical in older structures, whereas lightweight roof solutions are common in more unique units. This construction type might include schools, buildings, and homes. One of the advantages of this building form is that it is feasible to have verticle ventilation in these structures.
- Construction Type IV: Heavy Timber – Before 1960, this was a typical practice, so heavy timber construction is so simple to recognize. The external walls and inner elements of Type IV structures are non-combustible. Solid or laminated wood is used to construct these structures, and all wooden members must meet dimensional standards. The thickness of wood columns, beams, and girders must be at least 8 inches. Floors and roofing must have heavy planks that are at least 6 inches thick. If one of these structures catches fire, it will take a lot of water to put it out, but they stand up well against fire and don’t collapse easily due to their structural bulk. Although these structures include combustible elements, they often perform well in the event of a fire. They are also more resistant to collapse because of their structural bulk.
- Construction Type V: Wood Framed – The most explosive construction type on this list is Type V structures. It is the only construction type that allows combustible external walls as well as volatile inner structural members. Wooden frames, walls, floors, and roofs are used wholly or partially in this construction type. These materials are less expensive to produce and are becoming more widespread in constructing single-family houses and garages. This style is prevalent in modern residences. They frequently have exposed wood, which means they are not fire-resistant. Firefighters may be concerned about these structural parts since exposed wood has no fire resistance. If a fire breaks out, the entire structure will be engulfed in flames. Unless it is a lightweight structure, these structures may be reasonably resistant to collapse.
The key benefit of these types of construction is that the builder will risk a price increase and sets the pricing of the basic site plans. The contract’s items are described and expressed in the same way throughout the contract. This consistent representation aids in determining the price. The disadvantage is that the builder may increase his prices in response to the requested adjustment or plan changes. This type of fixed contract is unpopular among many builders. A careful examination of requirements and site plans is required for accurate pricing predictions. The majority of clients prefer fixed-price contracts.
- JobNimbus, “What are the 5 Types of Building Construction?”- https://www.jobnimbus.com/blog/2020/01/22/what-are-the-5-types-of-building-construction
- New England, “What are the Different Types of Construction?”- https://www.neit.edu/blog/what-are-the-different-types-of-construction
- Engineer Supply, “What is the difference between building and construction?” https://www.engineersupply.com/What-is-the-difference-between-building-and-construction.aspx
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