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Do inclined rock bolts perform better than rock bolts normal to joints?

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The use of rock bolts can be dated back to Roman Empire and it was commonly believed that rock bolts pin surface rock (bedded rock strata or individual rocks) to more stable rock. With the insertion of rock bolt into rock slope, it increases the rock mass’s stiffness and strength with respect to shear and tensile loads. Axial force in rock bolts consist of a force component normal to joint plane which contributes frictional resistance, and a force component parallel to joint plane which contributes to dowel action.

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Inclined rock bolts helps to stiffen shear and results in an increase in shear strength at smaller displacements. Rock bolts perpendicular to shear planes provide the lowest shear resistance. The optimal inclination of rock bolt is 30o to 60o based on past experimental works.

This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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