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Miss Pallavi Dhamak
SkyBus is a greener way to travel. When delegates choose to travel on SkyBus between the Airport and the city they all leave a smaller carbon footprint. SkyBus supports Green fleet and plants over 7,000 trees each year to offset carbon emissions from its fleet’s fuel consumption. Sky Bus operates 24 hours/7 days a week- over 250 trips a day moving in excess of two million passengers.
• Water management system/water plan
• Water tank/rainwater tanks
• Water saving shower heads
• Dual-flush toilets.
• Encourage a reduction in paper usage by communicating electronically
• Recycle paper, rubbish, print cartridges, aluminium, metal etc.
• Switch off computers/lights/air conditioners when not in use
• Energy efficient globes.
• Green Fleet.
• Communication to staff, guests, clients and/or suppliers about green initiatives
• Tree planting
• Carbon offsetting
• Use of/promote public transport
• Use of low emission/hybrid cars/buses.
Implementing environmentally sustainable practices into daily activities and business plans in the Business Events industry is becoming increasingly essential as the demand for environmentally responsible events continues to rise.
CONSTRUCTION OF SKYBUS TECHNOLOGY
The fixed structure at 8 metres height above road level provides the support and guidance for powered bogies which can run at 100 kmph, with the coach shells suspended below, carry passengers in air conditioned comfort, can follow existing road routes, while existing traffic on roads continue. It is aesthetically pleasing and there is no concern of a claustrophobic feeling for road users. Aesthetic, and eco-friendly, the Sky Bus is protected against derailment, toppling or collision – by design as well as by construction, hence is safer than the existing rail based system. At the cost of Rs. 50 Crore per km. in India , the system is noise – free and pollution – free with a capacity to transport 36000 passengers per hour (pph), scalable to 72,000 pph as required. With no signaling and having no points and crossings, it is a unique mass-transit system that can be put up within two years in any crowded & congested city. In addition to moving people, the Sky Bus system can carry standard 20 ft. containers, boosting its capacity utilization to double that of other existing systems.
Since it operates along existing roadways and within municipal limits, SkyBus metro falls under tramway category, under Art 366(20) of the Constitution of India.
The main components of the sky bus system are described below:
1. The sky way consists of a concrete box structure 8.4 X 2.4 m. carried over a series of piers at a height of 9 – 10 m. above the existing road level.
2. In the middle of the roadway, pile foundations support 1 m. diameter columns approximately 8 m. high, and at a spacing of 15 m. all along the roadway.
3. It has two heavy 52 – 60 kg. / Metre rails fixed with appropriate fastenings within the concrete box support at standard gauge that guide the sky bogie.
iv. There are no points & crossings.
1. Standard two axle bogies can be used in metros for speeds of 100 kmph (but can have higher speeds if required, upto 160 kmph) of standard gauge.
2. Linear Induction motor technology is incorporated with 4 th rail driving, which is above the bogie and 3 phase AC motors with regenerative power capability are used.
3. Third Rail is used for current collection.
4. Braking – Since the bogie is mounted, 3 levels of braking namely – Regenerative, disc brakes and finally, Emergency mechanical brakes are provide to ensure the safety of commuters.
1. These are double walled light shells with large wide windows suspended from the sky bogies.
2. Controlled banking on curves is possible. Curves with radii of 50 m. can be negotiated.
3. The coaches are air conditioned and fixed with automatic doors.
4. They have audio visual information to assist the passengers.
5. They also have special 4 m. wide sliding doors for quick entry and exit of passengers.
6. Each pair of coaches carries 300 persons and service every one minute or 30 seconds is possible.
1. Unlike conventional mass transit systems, Sky Bus needs smaller stations about 50 m. long.
2. Stations are available at every 1 km. It is a natural footbridge across the road. From up line to down line the station provides natural access, which is easy.
3. Service is available at every 30 seconds or 1 minute, which means virtually no waiting time for passengers.
4. Totally automated without drivers, access control is electronic by prepaid cards being swiped in.
5. Stations act only as an access facility, and not as passenger holding area.
SALIENT POINTS ABOUT SKYBUS METRO SYSTEM
The skybus having many advantages then technique developed uptil now, some important salient points is listed below.
• Standard Gauge Rail tracks :
60 kg rails fitted with double elastic fastenings, with Standard Gauge on sleepers designed & tested for 20 t axle load norms forming maintenance free tracks.
• Driving bogies:
100 kmph standard gauge 12 ton/14 ton axle load powered bogies –same as used in metro rails with 4×110/115 Kw asynchronous 3 ph AC motors with power-regeneration and capable of peak 1.3m/sec/sec acceleration.
Electrical re-generative braking, coupled with compressed air disk mechanical brakes and emergency/ idling mechanical brakes for stabling.
•Crushing load for underframe :
Underframe- fit to take crush loads of regular main line coaches- more than 70t.
Each train unit 20m long with two driving bogies the coach divided into 2×9.5 m long buses connected through vestibule door.
•Capacity of 20m long train unit:
Each Sky bus unit 20m long having two compartments ( 3.25m x 9.5m) of 9.5 m , can carry almost 400 persons at 7 persons/sq.m density peak. The 20 m units can be attached to form a 3 unit, 60m long train of 1200 persons capacity.
•Signal & train control:
Simple three aspect signal system driven by line of sight by motorman, with additional unique safety layer of Raksha Kavach, capable of providing 40 sec headway- but planned 60 sec.
A Sky bus route can thus be designed even at 60 sec headway, to carry 20,000 to 70,000 passengers per hour per direction in peak period.
•Security and safety:
Continuous computerized central monitoring & control with provision of audio/visual access for each coach for security. Distributed intelligence systems with redundancy to provide protection against swinging under wind loads/emergency localized control/ prevent over-loading/ emergency evacuation guidance.
•Track changes and reversals at terminals:
The reversal for the Sky buses at terminal points, to change tracks or go to depots happens through traversers – mechanical auto driven systems capable of handling 60m consists of Sky bus units.
•Stations-elegant and small:
Stations are 60m long to handle three units of Sky bus, covering next 25 years of requirements-though initially only 20m length is needed.
Access is from existing footpaths, climb limited to 6 m for passengers- within 500 to 600m from wherever you are on the road having Sky bus route.
•Turning radius & gradient:
Can be designed for 20m radius of turning radius, and vertical lift, if needed- thus we can avoid totally demolition of any built up urban property, if needed.
• On line maintenance of rolling stock and tracks:
Maintenance is through continuous monitoring of vibration signatures, and directed by need automatically by computerized systems- much more advanced than existing manual inspections only and periodic checks. All the sub-systems /elements are to existing UIC/Indian Railway codal practices applicable to railway transport.
• Cargo handling capability:
Cargo of standard containers are automatically delivered and cleared into and out of city.
•Safety Certification for Public carriage:
Will carry international class safety certification by renowned world class safety certifiers. Guaranteed against derailments and capsizing- making it a unique railway, where coaches can never escape the tracks.
Current concept of a railway terminal replaced in this “grid” system, by a multi point distributed discharge and access- almost eliminating inter-modal transfers. Each station designed for handling whatever commuters can arrive on a 4m wide foot-path- with waiting time less than one minute.
•Land requirements for route, stations and at depots:
All along the route the alignment is typically located on the median ( 1.2m diameter columns at about 20m spacing) of the road, needing right of way at 6.5m above the road, the fixed structure carrying railway tracks located at about 11m- thus avoiding claustrophobic effect for road users. Typical road widths normally of 10m all along and at station locations 20m width for 60m length desirable. Depots will be outside the urban areas, needing about 25 hectares land for services for every 10 km route. Stations are located with access from existing footpaths, and over and above existing roadways, none of them longer than 60m to cater to next 100 years of requirements
Typically for tropical climate conditions, for a module of 10 km route, 15 MW power needed covering traction and all services including comfort air-conditioning loads at stations.
•Quality of service and pricing:
With access within 500 to 700m walking distance, air-condition travel at 100 kmph , service available at less than a minute during peak hours, priced at Re 1.50 per km falling to Re 1 for regular travels with lead of more than 7km can be provided. typical) (year 2005)- if rider shipper a 10 km route is a little more than 3 lacks per day.
INVENTION OF SKYBUS GOA
The Skybus Metro project was former PM A B Vajpayee’s New Year gift to Goa in 2003. The pilot project was to connect Mapusa to Panaji. It was supposed to be a 10.5 km route in the first phase. Rajaram’s concept got a nod from the PMO in May 2003.
Accordingly, trial runs were conducted at a 1.6 km long test-track at Madagaon, Goa, with grant of Rs 50 crore from the Railways. However, a mishap occurred during the trial raising serious concerns about passenger safety, forcing the committee to re-evaluate the system. More detailed trials as per test schemes under empty, loaded and worn out conditions upto 100 kmph are yet to be conducted.
Rajaram says the safety norms are as per those laid out by the Chief Commissioner of Railway Safety (CCRS). “We have already tested at 70 kmph,” he says, adding there was no question of gauge conversion as it was not a rail-guided system. He feels the high cost of the project — approximately Rs 5,400 crore — is giving the government cold feet.
It was launched with great fanfare some two years back with the promise of giving India a world-class Skybus Metro. But like other ambitious NDA projects, this one too is facing roadblocks.
A government committee has recorded that it may take about two years to develop the track and get other clearances. While the man behind the Skybus concept, B Rajaram, former MD of the Konkan Railway Coporation (KRC), feels all that is required is the “political will” to give it the go-ahead, the committee feels that it’s the development, testing and validation that will take time.
A senior official of the Urban Development ministry, under which falls urban transport, says, “Many things still need to be sorted out. We have set up a committee to look into the techno-feasibility of the project. Trial runs have been conducted. It will take time.”
The committee’s findings say, “It may take some more time as the Skybus system so far developed at the test track site at Goa is still in the developmental phase.”
The Railways too have objected to it. The gauge used for the Skybus system is standard while the railway ministry has said the KRC was requested to test the system on broad-gauge. As it can’t comment on the safety aspect of the standard gauge Skybus system, it says it won’t be in a position to give certification. “There are other issues regarding safety integration, signalling system and capacity which were being looked into by the committee,” says the official.
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ADVANTAGES OF SKYBUS
• Fast transportation
• No land acquisition problem.
• No demolition
• No Vandalism
• Fire Protection
• No capsizing
• No Deaths
• Deep Penetration
• Lowest Operational cost.
• No interference with normal road traffic
• Low Capital cost
• Fast Clearance
• Better Capacity
• Fast Execution
• No Pollution
• No Force Major
• No traffic Jams, No waiting
• Easy Access
• Luxury & Comfort.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The Skybus is the technology breakthrough that India has achieved. Skybus is an improved railway technology, eliminating the problems of existing metro rail systems, like, derailments ollisions, and capsizing crushing people. Old conventional railway men, who remained basically operating and maintenance experts, may take a little time to appreciate, but the fact remains Sky bus is an improved railway technology eliminating their fears of derailments and capsizing from which they suffered for decades!
Financially Skybus Metro makes urban transport a dream come true for administrators- virtually free gift to people without Government fund in.
What needs to be done is to eliminate the doubting Thomas in our minds, and adopt the Sky bus, if we want to really solve the urban transport crisis!. The Sky Bus metro is one single technology which can change the face of our cities, take out almost 10 million road vehicles in the cities and make the cities livable, improving quality of life and attract and sustain economic activity to generate wealth.
We at engineeringcivil.com are thankful to Miss Pallavi Dhamak for submitting his project report on Skybus to us. We are sure this will be of great help to all those who are seeking information on Skybus and how it can be used as a improved way of transporting people and cargo from one point to another.
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