Should high-yield steel or mild steel be designed as road reinforcement?

High yield steel is the preferred material for the reinforcement of concrete carriageway because of the following reasons:

(i) The principal function of steel reinforcement in concrete pavement is to control cracking. If mild steel is adopted for reinforcement, upon initiation of crack formation mild steel becomes overstressed and is
prone to yielding. High yield steel offers resistance to crack growth. The above situation is commonly encountered where there is abnormal traffic loads on concrete carriageway exceeding the design limit.

(ii) High-yield steel is less prone to deformation and bending during routine handling operation.

(iii) In the current market, steel mesh reinforcement is normally of high-yield steel type and the use of mild steel as road reinforcement requires the placing of special orders to the suppliers.

This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

Analysis and Design Of 2-D Tubular Frame Using USFOS Modeling

Analysis and Design Of 2-D Tubular Frame Using USFOS Modeling by
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
National University Of Singapore

USFOS is the analytical tool for predicting both the resistance of structures subject to accidental loads and the residual strength of damaged structures after such loads. It is based on finite element modeling. USFOS covers static collapse analysis, non-linear time series dynamic analysis as well as eigenvalue analysis of typically jackets, jack-ups, topsides and floaters. Primarily the purpose of this paper is to analyze two types of 2-D offshore frame and study the progressive collapse mechanism in these two frames due to different load combinations along X-axis and Y-axis. First the boundary conditions were fixed for the vertical members using USFOS modeling and they were tested for collapse under four different load combinations. Differences in behavior of two frames have been studied and different brace-chord sizes have been fixed. This type of analysis is useful to test if an offshore jacket with some specified size can stand the load coming on it from waves, wind or impact of ships. By utilizing the inherent redundancy found in most offshore structures the progressive collapse limit state can be used to design for accidental damage or extreme loads. Whereas in traditional elastic design redistribution of load is not normally considered. Collapse or plastic limit state design allows for local failure in yield or buckling and even partial collapse, provided the overall integrity of the structure is maintained. In short, plastic limit state design allows the designers to take advantage of any reserve capacity in the structure.
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Behavioural Studies On Hollow Double Skinned Steel Concrete Composite Columns

Research Paper by N.Balasubramanian,R.B.Karthika and Dr.R.Thenmozhi
Government College Of Technology, Coimbatore-641 013, India

This paper comprises of the experimental study of eight double skinned concrete filled steel tubular (DSCFT ) beam columns of concentrically placed circular sections filled with self compacting concrete. Tests on the specimens were made by applying eccentric loads. The main experimental parameters for beam-columns were slenderness ratio and load eccentricity. Testing of specimens investigates the behaviour on load deflection, confinement effect, and the strength of the columns. The experimental observations were shown by load-deflection curves. Various characteristics such as strength, stiffness, ductility and failure mode are discussed. The predicted load versus deformation relationships are in good agreement with beam-column test results. The DSCFT columns in-filled with SCC show good strength and ductility. Modified equations are suggested to find the ultimate compressive strength of DSCFT columns filled with SCC.

Keywords : Composite; Double skinned concrete filled steel tubular columns; D/t thickness, fabrication and casting, load deflection, ductility.

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What is the purpose of skin reinforcement for deep beams?

In BS8110, it states that secondary reinforcement should be provided for beams exceeding 750mm deep at a distance measured 2/3 depth from the tension face. Experimental works revealed that at or close to mid-depth of deep beams, the maximum width of cracks arising from flexure may be about two to three times larger than the width of the same crack at the level of surface where the crack originally forms.

The presence of crack is undesirable from aesthetic point of view. Moreover, it poses potential corrosion problems to reinforcement of deep beams. To safeguard against these crack formation, skin reinforcement is designed on the sides of deep beams to limit the formation of flexural crack widths. Though the principal function of skin reinforcement is to control crack width, it may be employed for providing bending resistance of the section.

This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

What is the difference in bonding performance to concrete between epoxy-coated bars and galvanized bars?

Based on the findings of CEB Bulletin 211, the bonding of galvanized bars to concrete is lower in early age owing to hydrogen release when zinc reacts with calcium hydroxide in concrete and the presence of hydrogen tend to reduce the bond strength between galvanized bars and concrete. However, bonding will increase with time until the full bond strength of ungalvanized bars is attained.

For epoxy-coated bars, there is a 20% decrease in bond strength for bars placed at the bottom of concrete sections while for bars placed on the top there is no major difference in bond compared with uncoated bars.

This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.