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Why are holes sometimes present in the base plates connected to footings?

The surface of footings is normally quite rough so that some leveling has to be carried out for the base plates. The interface between the base plates and footings after leveling is subsequently filled with grout.

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What are the functions of different components in a painting system?

In a typical painting system, there are normally three main layers, primer, undercoat and finishing coat. The primer acts as the first coat of the painting system and adheres to the substrate. It serves to provide a foundation for other coats. The mid-coat, undercoat, is designed to increase the film thickness and hinder the background colour. Moreover, it aids in the reduction of permeability by incorporating pigments like micaceous iron oxide. Finally, the finishing coat contributes to the appearance of the painting system like colour. Sometimes, it may be designed to provide additional abrasive resistance. However, in terms of corrosion protection to steelworks, it does not add much value.

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Why should protection be implemented for steelwork against fire?

Owing to the high thermal conductivity of steel, the temperature of unprotected steel is almost the same as the temperature of fire. Since the yield strength of structural steel drops approximately by half when its temperature rises to about 550oC, it is usually provided with some forms of insulation.

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How do corrosion inhibitors function?

Corrosion inhibitors are chemical substances that, when added in small concentrations, stop or reduce the corrosion or reaction of the metal with the environment. It normally functions by one or more of the following mechanisms:

(i) It may alter the external environmental conditions by taking away or inactivating an aggressive agent;

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What are the advantages in using castellated beams?

Castellated beams refer to the type of beams which involve expanding a standard rolled steel section in such a way that a predetermined pattern is cut on section webs and the rolled section is cut into two halves.

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