Bandra Worli Sea Link – India’s Civil Marvel

When we talk about moving from western suburbs to islands of Mumbai, the only way out till today was Mahim causeway. But today with the grand opening of Bandra Worli Sea Link Project by Sonia Gandhi would make the life of commuters much more easy. Earlier with the non availability of any other route, the distance of 8 km took nearly 40 minutes but with the opening of this Indian engineering marvel, the distance would be covered in just under 10 minutes.

Talking about the engineering side of this project, these two cable-stayed bridges, one 600-metre-long at Bandra channel and the other twin-tower supported 350-metre-long at the Worli channel are one of its kind in India. This eight lane bridge has a cable stayed tower which is of almost 43 storey building height. The Cable Stay system comprises 2,250 km of high strength galvanized steel wires which support this bulky 20,000 ton structure. Several teams of engineers from Canada, China, Egypt, Switzerland, Britain, Singapore, Thailand, Hong Kong, Serbia, Indonesia and the Philippines have worked on the project.

bandra-worli-sea-link

It is built with the cost of more than 1,650 crore and it took 10 years to built it. Construction was marred by litigation from environmentalists and fisherman. But finally it was built with much changes. But it is believed that it would save almost 100 crore per day in form of time and fuel.

Some other facts about Bandra Worli Sea Link

1.The bridge’s lighting is done at a cost of about Rs 9-crore (Rs 90 million) by Bajaj Electricals
2. Bandra-Worli sea link is likely to consume 1,000 KW power a day and this would be supplied by Reliance Power and the Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport.
3. It is built as BOT i.e built, operate and transfer. A toll plaza is installed and each commuter has to pay for using this sea link

Here is a video we got hold on youtube. Thanks to our visitor – Sanjana who sent this link to us.

Millau Viaduct France – Extreme Engineering

Millau Viaduct France (In French le Viaduc de Millau) is one of the most awesome civil engineering project. It is a large cable-stayed road-bridge that spans the valley of the River Tarn near Millau in France. It was designed by structural engineer Michel Virlogeux and architect Norman Foster.One of the summit of this bridge is at a height of 343 meters)1125 ft) which makes it is the tallest vehicular bridge in the world.
The Millau Viaduct consists of an eight-span steel roadway supported by seven concrete pylons. The roadway weighs 36,000 tons and is 2,460 m (8,100 ft) long, measuring 32 m (100 ft) wide by 4.2 m (14 ft) deep, making it the world’s longest cable-stayed deck. The six central spans each measure 342 m (1,120 ft) with the two outer spans measuring 204 m (670 ft). The roadway has a slope of 3% descending from south to north, and curves in a plane section with a 20 km (12 mi) radius to give drivers better visibility. It carries two lanes of traffic and one safety lane in each direction.

The pylons range in height from 77 m (250 ft) to 246 m (810 ft), and taper in their longitudinal section from 24.5 m (80 ft) at the base to 11 m (36 ft) at the deck. Each pylon is composed of 16 framework sections, each weighing 2,230 tons. These sections were assembled on site from pieces of 60 tons, 4 m (13 ft) wide and 17 m (56 ft) long, made in factories in Lauterbourg and Fos-sur-Mer by Eiffage. The pylons each support 97 m (320 ft) tall masts.

The pylons were assembled first, together with some intermediate temporary pylons, before the decks were slid out across the piers by satellite-guided hydraulic rams that moved the deck 600 mm every 4 minutes. Then the masts were driven over the new deck, erected on top of the pylons, connected to the deck and the temporary pylons removed.

Construction began on 10 October 2001 and was intended to take three years, but weather conditions put work on the bridge behind schedule. A revised schedule aimed for the bridge to be opened in January 2005. The viaduct was inaugurated by President Chirac on 14 December 2004 to open for traffic on 16 December, several weeks ahead of the revised schedule.

Pylons and abutments

Each pylon is supported by four deep shafts, 15 m (49 ft) deep and 5 m (16 ft) in diameter.Height is given below for each

P1 = 94.501 m (310 ft 0.5 in)      P2 = 244.96 m (803 ft 8 in)

P3 = 221.05 m (725 ft 3 in)         P4 = 144.21 m (473 ft 2 in)

P5 = 136.42 m (447 ft 7 in)         P6 = 111.94 m (367 ft 3 in)

P7 = 77.56 m (254 ft 6 in)

Deck

The metallic deck, which appears very light despite its total mass of around 36,000 metric tons (40,000 short tons), is 2,460 m (8,100 ft) long and 32 m (100 ft) wide. It comprises eight spans. The six central spans measure 342 m (1,120 ft), and the two outer spans are 204 metres (670 ft). These are composed of 173 central box beams, the spinal column of the construction, onto which the lateral floors and the lateral box beams were welded. The central box beams have a 4 m (13 ft) cross-section and a length of 15–22 m (49-72 ft) for a total weight of 90 metric tons (99 short tons). The deck has an inverse airfoil shape, providing negative lift in strong wind conditions.

Masts

The seven masts, each 87 m (290 ft) high and weighing around 700 metric tons (770 short tons), are set on top of the pylons. Between each of them, eleven stays (metal cables) are anchored, providing support for the road deck.

Stays

Each mast of the viaduct is equipped with a monoaxial layer of eleven pairs of stays laid face to face. Depending on their length, the stays were made of 55 to 91 high tensile steel cables, or strands, themselves formed of seven strands of steel (a central strand with six intertwined strands). Each strand has triple protection against corrosion (galvanisation, a coating of petroleum wax and an extruded polyethylene sheath). The exterior envelope of the stays is itself coated along its entire length with a double helical weatherstrip. The idea is to avoid running water which, in high winds, could cause vibration in the stays and compromise the stability of the viaduct.The stays were installed by the Freyssinet company.

Surface To allow for deformations of the metal deck under traffic, a special surface of modified bitumen was installed by research teams from Appia. The surface is somewhat flexible to adapt to deformations in the steel deck without cracking, but it must nevertheless have sufficient strength to withstand motorway conditions (fatigue, density, texture, adherence, anti-rutting, etc.). The “ideal formula” was found only after ten years of research.

Statistics : The Millau Viaduct Bridge

* 2,460 m (8,071 ft): total length of the roadway
* 7: number of piers
* 77 m (253 ft): height of Pier 7, the shortest
* 343 m (1,125 ft): height of Pier 2, the tallest (245 m/804 ft at the roadway’s level)
* 87 m (285 ft): height of a mast
* 154: number of shrouds
* 270 m (886 ft): average height of the roadway
* 4.20 m (13 ft 9 in): thickness of the roadway
* 32.05 m (105 ft 2 in): width of the roadway
* 85,000 m³ (111,000 cu yd): total volume of concrete used
* 290,000 metric tons (320,000 short tons): total weight of the bridge
* 10,000–25,000 vehicles: estimated daily traffic
* €5.40–7.00: typical automobile toll, as of July 2007
* 20 km (12 mi): horizontal radius of curvature of the road deck

This article was taken from wikipedia and was submitted to us by Er. Akansha.

Spring Summer Autumn Winter Snow

SSAWS, pronounced “zaws” and officially known as LaLaport Skidome SSAWS, was an indoor ski slope in Funabashi, Chiba, Japan. SSAWS is acronym of “Spring Summer Autumn Winter Snow”.It was constructed by Mitsui at the cost of US$400 million. It opened on July 15, 1993. The structural height of 100 meters, width of 100m and a length of 500m it was the largest indoor ski slope in the world at the time. The complex had three ski courses —20.1° for skilled skiers, 15° for intermediate, and 10° for beginners — and two ski lifts.The ski slope was designed to break even by 2018 by attracting 1,300,000 visitors yearly, who would pay ¥4,300 yen (~US$50) for 2 hours of lift time and spend a total of $70 on average. However, the opening of the ski slope came shortly after the popping of the Japanese asset price bubble and original estimates soon proved too optimistic, with the number of visitors dropping from one million in the first year to 700,000 in the second.With an annual operating cost of US$40 million, SSAWS sustained losses averaging US$16.7 million/year.SSAWS closed on September 30, 2002. In 2003, the structure was demolished to make way for Japan’s first large-format IKEA store, which opened on the site on April 24, 2006.

Spring Summer Autumn Winter Snow

This article was submitted by Akansha.

Amazing China – Civil Engineering Wonders Part – 2

1) Linked Hybrid, Beijing
Linked Hybrid, which will house 2,500 people in 700 apartments covering 1.6 million square feet, is a model for large-scale sustainable residential architecture. The site will feature one of the world’s largest geothermal cooling and heating systems, which will stabilize the temperature within the complex of eight buildings, all linked at the 20th floor by a “ring” of service establishments, like cafés and dry cleaners. A set of dual pipes pumps water from 100 meters below ground, circulating the liquid between the buildings’ concrete floors.

The result: The water-circulation system serves as a giant radiator in the winter and cooling system in the summer. It has no boilers to supply heat, no electric air conditioners to supply cool. The apartments also feature gray-water recycling — a process that’s just starting to catch on in Beijing in much smaller buildings — to filter waste water from kitchen sinks and wash basins back into toilets.

Linked-Hybrid_Beijing

2) Dongtan Eco City, Dongtan
Developed by the Shanghai Industrial investment Corp., Dongtan Eco City , roughly the size of Manhattan , will be the world’s first fully sustainable cosmopolis when completed in 2040. Like Manhattan , it’s situated on an island — the third-largest in China . Located on the Yangtze River, Dongtan is within close proximity of the bustle of Shanghai .

By the time the Shanghai Expo trade fair opens in 2010, the city’s first phase should be completed, and 50,000 residents will call Dongtan home-sweet-sustainable-home. The goals to be accomplished in the next five years: systems for water purification, waste management, and renewable energy. An infrastructure of roads will connect the former agricultural land with Shanghai .

Dongtan_Eco_City_Dongtan

3) Olympic Stadium, Beijing
Sports stadiums have long followed the enduring design of one of the original wonders of the world, Rome ‘s Coliseum. Herzog & de Meuron’s National Stadium in Beijing is an attempt to rethink the classic sports-arena layout for more ecologically correct times.

The Swiss architects (of Tate Modern fame) wanted to provide natural ventilation for the 91,000-seat structure — perhaps the largest “eco-friendly” sports stadium designed to date. To achieve this, they set out to create a building that could function without a strictly enclosed shell, yet also provide constant shelter for the audience and athletes alike.

To solve these design problems, they looked to nature for inspiration. The stadium’s outer grid resembles a bird’s nest constructed of delicately placed branches and twigs. Each discrete space within the facility, from restrooms to restaurants, is constructed as an independent unit within the outer lattice — making it possible to encase the entire complex with an open grid that allows for natural air circulation. The architects also incorporated a layer of translucent membrane to fill any gaps in the lacy exterior.
image � Herzog and de Meuron

Olympic_Stadium_Beijing

4) Donghai Bridge , Shanghai/Yangshan Island
A key phase in the development of the world’s largest deep-sea port was completed when China ‘s first cross-sea bridge — the 20-mile, six-lane Donghai Bridge — was officially opened in December, 2005. Stretching across the East China Sea , the graceful cable-stay structure connects Shanghai to Yangshan Island, set to become China ‘s first free-trade port (and the world’s largest container port) upon its completion in 2010.

To provide a safer driving route in the typhoons and high waves known to hit the region, Donghai Bridge is designed in an S-shape. The structure, reported by Shanghai Daily to have cost $1.2 billion, will hold its title of China’s — and one of the world’s — longest over-sea bridge for only a couple of years, though. In 2008, the nearby 22-mile Hangzhou Bay Transoceanic Bridge, which also begins (or ends, depending on your journey) in Shanghai , will earn the superlative.
Photo: Getty Images

Donghai_Bridge_hanghai_Yangshan_Island

5) National Grand Theater, Beijing
Located near Tiananmen Square , the 490,485-square-foot glass-and-titanium National Grand Theater, scheduled to open in 2008, seems to float above a man-made lake. Intended to stand out amid the Chinese capital’s bustling streets and ancient buildings, the structure has garnered criticism among Bejing’s citizens for clashing with classic landmarks like the Monument to the People’s Heroes (dedicated to revolutionary martyrs), the vast home of the National People’s Congress, or Tiananmen Gate itself (the Gate of Heavenly Peace).

French architect Paul Andreu is no stranger to controversy — or to innovative forms. A generation ago, in 1974, his untraditional design for Terminal 1 of Paris ‘s Charles de Gaulle airport was criticized for its unusual curves, yet Andreu’s groundbreaking, futuristic building later was seen to distinguish de Gaulle from more generic European and international air hubs. (The same airport’s Terminal 2E, also designed by Andreu, gained attention in 2004 when it collapsed, tragically killing four people.)

Beijing ‘s daring National Grand Theater is as much a spectacle as the productions that will be staged inside in the 2,416-seat opera house, the 2,017-seat concert hall, and the 1,040-seat theater. At night, the semi-transparent skin will give passersby a glimpse at the performance inside one of three auditoriums, a feature that highlights the building’s public nature.

National_Grand_Theater_Beijing

Amazing China – Civil Engineering Wonders Part – 1

1. The Commune, Beijing
First phase completed 2002, expansion scheduled for completion in 2010.
The complex includes houses by 12 of Asia ‘s leading architects. It was conceived by married real-estate developers Zhang Xin and Pan Shiyi, who gave each architect a $1 million budget. Shigeru Ban, the Japanese architect most famous for the paper houses he designed for refugees of the Kobe earthquake, designed the Furniture House, featuring the laminated plywood typically used for modular furniture, and China’s Yung Ho Chang created the Split House, which takes the idea of a boxy dwelling, slices it in half, and spreads it out like a fan.

The Commune is now operated as a boutique hotel by the Germany luxury hotel group Kempinski, which is responsible for an upcoming expansion, which will feature 21 homes (including replications of the originals). One element will remain untouched in the new development: the Commune’s private pedestrian trails, which trace untouched sections of the Great Wall.
Photo: Ma Xiaochun

 

The_Commune_Beijing

 

2. Beijing International Airport , Beijing
According to the U.S. Embassy to China, the country will be building 108 new airports between 2004 and 2009 — including what will be the world’s largest: the Beijing International Airport, designed by Foster & Partners. Set to open at the end of 2007, in time for the Beijing Olympics in 2008, the airport terminal will cover more than 1 million square meters, giving it a bigger footprint than the Pentagon.

It’s designed to handle 43 million passengers a year initially and 55 million by 2015, figures that will probably push the new facility into the ranks of the top 10 busiest airports, going by the 2004 numbers from the Airports Council International. Given the scale and traffic, Foster & Partners focused on the traveler’s experience, making sure that walking distances are short, for instance.

Building on Foster’s experience designing Hong Kong ‘s new mega-airport, the massive Chek Lap Kok, the sprawling Beijing terminal is housed under a single roof. To help passengers distinguish between different sections of the vast space, skylights cast different shades of yellow and red light across walls — a subtle but innovative navigational aid. The architects also kept sustainability in mind: An environmental-control system reduces carbon emissions, and skylights situated on a south-east axis lessen solar heat, keeping the building cool.

 

Beijing_International_Airport _Beijing

 

3) Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai
Rising in the Lujiazhui financial district in Pudong, the Shanghai World Financial Center is a tower among towers. The elegant 101-story skyscraper will be (for a moment, at least) the world’s tallest when completed in early 2008.

 

One of the biggest challenges of building tall is creating a structure that can withstand high winds. The architects devised an innovation solution to alleviate wind pressure by adding a rectangular cut-out at the building’s apex. Not only does the open area help reduce the building’s sway but it also will be home to the world’s highest outdoor observation deck — a 100th-floor vista that will take vertigo to new heights.

Shanghai_World_Financial_Center_Shanghai

 

4. National Swimming Center , Beijing
The striking exterior of the National Swimming Center , being constructed for the 2008 Olympic Games and nicknamed, the “Water Cube,” is made from panels of a lightweight form of Teflon that transforms the building into an energy-efficient greenhouse-like environment. Solar energy will also be used to heat the swimming pools, which are designed to reuse double-filtered, backwashed pool water that’s usually dumped as waste.

 

Excess rainwater will also be collected and stored in subterranean tanks and used to fill the pools. The complex engineering system of curvy steel frames that form the structure of the bubble-like skin are based on research into the structural properties of soap bubbles by two physicists at Dublin ‘s Trinity College . The unique structure is designed to help the building withstand nearly any seismic disruptions.

Nationa_Swimming_Center_Beijing

 

5) Central Chinese Television CCTV, Beijing
The design of the new Central Chinese Television (CCTV) headquarters defies the popular conception of a skyscraper — and it broke Beijing’s building codes and required approval by a special review panel. The standard systems for engineering gravity and lateral loads in buildings didn’t apply to the CCTV building, which is formed by two leaning towers, each bent 90 degrees at the top and bottom to form a continuous loop.

 

The engineer’s solution is to create a structural “tube” of diagonal supports. The irregular pattern of this “diagrid” system reflects the distribution of forces across the tube’s surface. Designed by Rem Koolhaas and Ole Scheeren and engineered by Ove Arup, the new CCTV tower rethinks what a skyscraper can be.

Central_Chinese_Television CCTV_Beijing

This is submitted by Er. Akhansha

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