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What is Efflorescence in Bricks and Concrete?

Paper of Efflorescence in Bricks and Efflorescence and Leaching in Concrete by Sir. Kaushal Kishore
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

Efflorescence is the usual terms for deposit of soluble salts, formed in or near the surface of a porous material, as a result of evaporation of water in which they have been dissolved.

EFFLORESCENCE IN BRICKS:
Usually sulphate of magnesium, calcium, sulphate and carbonate (and sometimes chloride and nitrates) of sodium and potassium are found in efflorescence. These salts may be traced to the brick itself, sand used in construction, the foundation soil, ground water, water used in the construction and loose earth left over in contact with brick work. Bricks with magnesium sulphate content higher than 0.05 percent should not be used in construction. Soluble salt content in sand (chloride and sulphate together) should not exceed 0.1 percent.
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What are Green Buildings?

By
Er. Kaushal Kishore ,
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

INTRODUCTION:
A green building is that building which is constructed at a well planed location with proper design and sustainable materials. Fitted and painted with eco friendly materials. The building should gives to its occupants healthy and comfortable environment in all climates. It remains cool in summer, warm in winter, inside fully protected from rain, gives natural pollution free air and light through doors, windows and ventilators without any artificial means. For particular requirements it has solar, wind power and eco friendly electrical, mechanical etc. devices.
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Explain Structural Engineer License

Articles gives an overview of the licensing requirements for Structural Engineer’s (SE) in the United States.

Engineering professionals of all disciplines (electrical, civil, mechanical, structural, etc…) in the United States are charged with “protecting the safety, health and welfare of the general public.”

Because of this responsibility, all 50 states currently require a PE licensure to practice engineering within their geographic bounds. In the last decade, there has been a movement across the nation to better the life safety of our structures by requiring a separate licensure for structural engineers.

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10 Steps for Building Design

General building design procedure:

Step 1: Plan the approximate layout of the building .
Step 2: Calculate dead and snow load.
Step 3: Design steelroof decks:
Step 4: Select owsj’s

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Is Civil Engineering Suitable For Girls?

This question has been raised again and again whether girls should do civil engineering or not. I am still not able to understand why people think girls are not suitable for civil engineering. In fact, in my opinion girls can and should do civil engineering. Many people say Civil engineering is field engineering and girls would have difficult time in working with labor class and would face numerous other site problems. But why those people forget that civil engineering is not limited to only field engineering, in fact its one of the broadest field of engineering. Girls can opt for office jobs like analysis, designing, tendering, managing projects and many other office jobs.

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