Castellated beams refer to the type of beams which involve expanding a standard rolled steel section in such a way that a predetermined pattern is cut on section webs and the rolled section is cut into two halves.
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In general, wide and deep sheetpiles tend to be more cost-effective than narrow sections because they provide the same bending strength with a lower weight per square foot. As such, with increasing width of sheetpiles sections, fewer sheetpiles are required to cover a certain length of piling operation. Hence, the cost of installation can be reduced accordingly.
There are generally three main vibration mechanisms caused by driving
(a) When the sheetpiles are impacted by a hammer, a compressive wave would be formed and it travels down to the toe of sheetpiles. A large amount of energy would be used to cause downward movement of sheetpiles while some of the energy would be reflected back up to the sheetpiles. The remaining energy would be transmitted to soils which expand outward as a spherical wavefront called “P” waves.
It is not uncommon that steel reinforcement is bent prior to installation into concrete structure. However, upon bending process steel reinforcement may fracture owing to the following reasons:
(i) The ribs on steel bars serve as location of stress concentration which is a potential weak point for fracturing.