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Concrete Engineering

What is Concrete Retarder – Types, Uses, Advantages and Disadvantages

What is Concrete Retarder?

Retarders are additives that slow the setting of cement paste and, by extension, mixtures like mortar or concrete that contains cement. Concrete retarders are also known as retarding admixtures or just retarders. Adding a retarder to the concrete mix can delay the setting time by up to an hour. They slow the hardening process in warmer weather to give workers more time to mix, transport and place the concrete. Retarders not only slow down the process, but they also save water.
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What is Plum Concrete? How to Prepare Plum Concrete?

What is Plum Concrete?
Plum concrete, also known as cyclopean concrete and rubble concrete, combines wet concrete and a plum (large size, strong, clean natural coarse aggregate or boulders of roughly 300 mm or larger). Plum makes up about 30–40% of the overall weight of the poured-in-place material.

U.S. technical specifications recommend a ratio of 60 percent plain concrete to 40 percent big stones when building with Cyclopean concrete. On day 28, the plain concrete used in this project must have a minimum resistance of 180 kg/cm2, and its ingredients must be thoroughly saturated before being mixed. The stone used must be in line with ASTM standards, and the blueprints will determine the exact dimensions for the foundation.

Plum’s presence in concrete lowers the required hydration heat since it eliminates the need for an excessive amount of cement while maintaining the material’s strength. Constructions of gravity dams, embankments, filling of deep or uneven terrain, foundations, etc., are all common applications for plum concrete. It’s a cheap replacement for regular cement.

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What are the Methods for Transportation of Concrete?

What is Transportation of Concrete?
Transportation of concrete is a way to move fresh concrete from where it is mixed to where it will likely be used in the structure. Since the time it takes to move concrete depends mostly on how long it takes to set up at first and how much workability is needed at the site, it should be a design parameter. The method of moving concrete is decided ahead of time so that the right additives can be added to improve certain properties.

Importance of Transporting Concrete:
The planning and execution of concrete transportation must be meticulous. For temporary jobs, thirty minutes of travel time is usually sufficient. Concrete should be unloaded from agitating transport equipment at a ready-mix plant or other central or mobile plants within two hours. This time is cut in half if the silent transport vehicles are utilized. To avoid honeycombing or chilly joints, you should not wait around. If you choose the wrong way to transport concrete, it could get mixed up and be useless. So, the right way must be chosen to move the concrete based on the needs. There are many things to think about when choosing how to transport concrete, such as:

  • Type of concrete mix and its parts
  • Conditions of the weather, like humidity, temperature, wind speed, etc.
  • Size of building, Type of building
  • Topography
  • Position of the batching plant
  • Price of transportation

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Special Concrete – Types, Advantages and Disadvantages

Recent advancements in construction technology have resulted in concretes that have almost surmounted these constraints and are close to optimal circumstances. Modifying the microstructure of the cement paste, inducing more air to make it lighter, allowing flexibility in reducing or raising the setting pace, and so on are some of the ways used to improve its qualities.Concrete’s versatility allows it to be used for a variety of applications. However, it has several disadvantages, including low tensile strength, reinforcement corrosion, and vulnerability to chemical attacks, all of which limit its endurance.

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Grillage Foundation – Design, Installation & Types

What Grillage Foundation?
Grillage foundations are made of one, two, or more levels of beams (usual steel) superimposed on a layer of concrete to distribute load across a large area. It is found at the bottom of the columns. These layers are concrete-encased and at right angles to one another. This foundation form commonly supports heavy building columns, piers, and scaffolds.

Even though foundation and grillage appear to be the same, they are not. Grillage disperses huge loads across broad areas, similar to how foundations distribute the load from the structure to the ground.

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Retaining Wall – Function, Types, Advantages & Disadvantages

What is a Retaining Wall?
In technology, a retaining wall could be a significant reasonable construction. The first function of the wall is to keep the earth or other materials vertical or near-vertical. This wall is commonly used in various applications, including road, railway, bridge, irrigation engineering, land reclamation, and coastal engineering. The vertical or inclined stem is solid monolithically joined to a base block. These are considered suitable up to a height of 6 meters.

Retaining walls are solid wall structures that support soil laterally to keep the ground surface at distinct elevations on both sides of the building. If a retaining wall is not present, the soil at a higher elevation will tend to sink until it reaches its natural, stable shape.

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Types of Concrete Finishes

Concrete is a special construction material that is commonly utilized in the construction industry. Concrete comprises the right proportions of cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, and water. Finishing is one of the most important parts of concrete after it has been cast because it gives the concrete’s surface a pleasant appearance. Compressing, leveling, and smoothing the concrete surface is concrete surface finishing.

The most basic concrete finishes are smooth surfaces created with screeds and trowels. Work screed is used to level the concrete surface after being poured in form.
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Concrete Blocks – Types, Uses, Advantages & Disadvantages

A Concrete Block is a ‘Building Block’ composed entirely of concrete that is then mortared together to make an imposing, long-lasting construction. These construction blocks can be ‘Hollow’ or ‘Solid,’ formed of ordinary or lightweight concrete in various specified sizes, depending on the precise requirements. Concrete blocks come in various shapes and sizes, and they can be solid or hollow. 39cm x 19cm x (30cm or 20 cm or 10cm) or 2 inch, 4 inch, 6 inch, 8 inch, 10 inch, and 12-inch unit configurations are the most popular concrete block sizes. Concrete blocks are made from cement, aggregate, and water. In concrete blocks, the cement-aggregate ratio is 1:6.

Types of Concrete Blocks:
There are two types of concrete blocks:
1. Solid Concrete Blocks
2. Hollow Concrete Blocks

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Creep of concrete and their effects

Deformation of a structure due to a sustained load is known as concrete creep. Concrete can alter shape if it is subjected to prolonged strain or stress. This deformation occurs most often in the direction of the applied force. A concrete column compressing or a beam bending are examples of this. Concrete does not always fail or break down as a result of creep. When a load is applied to concrete, an instantaneous elastic strain occurs, which develops into creep strain if the load is sustained.

Concrete’s stress-strain curve is not a straight line, and at a certain value, the strain will continue to increase without a substantial increase in stress. The time-dependent component of the tension that arises as a result of stress is also known as concrete creep.

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Types of cracks in concrete and their causes

Concrete is one of the most durable and long-lasting building materials available. Cracks in concrete can be caused by a variety of factors, including temperature variations, structural flaws, and tree roots. Contrary to popular belief, not all concrete cracks are the same. In fact, determining the suitable type might assist you in correctly repairing the cracks.

Plastic concrete refers to concrete that is still fresh. Even though the components of this concrete are fully mixed when it is in a plastic condition, it is still unable to provide strength. Fresh concrete, commonly referred to as plastic concrete, is a newly mixed substance that can be moulded into any shape. Any of these states can lead to cracks.

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